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ADVERTISEMENT, 


This work (Bulletin No. 48) is one of a series of papers intended to 
illustrate the collections belonging to the United States, and constitut- 
ing the National Museum, of which the Smithsonian Institution was 
placed in charge by the act of Congress of August 10, 1846. 

The publications of the National Museum consist of two series—the 
Bulletins, of which thisis No. 48, in continuous series, and the Proceed- 
ings, of which the seventeenth volume is now in press. A small edition 
of each paper in the Proceedings is distributed in pamphlet form to 
specialists in advance of the publication of the bound volume. 

The Bulletins of the National Museum, the publication of which was 
commenced in 1875, consist of elaborate papers based upon the collec- 
tions of the Museum, reports of expeditions, etc., while the Proceed- 
ings facilitate the prompt publication of freshly-acquired facts relating 
to biology, anthropology, and geology, descriptions of restricted groups 
of animals and plants, the discussion of particular questions relative 
to the synonymy of species, and the diaries of minor expeditions. 

Other papers, of more general popular interest, are printed in the 
Appendix to the Annual Report. 

Full lists of the publications of the Museum may be-found in the cur- 
rent catalogues of the publications of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Papers intended for publication in the Proceedings and Bulletins of 
the National Museum are referred to the Committee on Publications, 
composed as follows: F. W. True (chairman), R. Edward Earll (editor), 
‘T. H. Bean, Otis T. Mason, Leonhard Stejneger, and Lester F. Ward. 


S. P. LANGLEY, 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 
‘WASHINGTON, D. C., October 8, 1894. 


Il 


CONTRIBUTIONS TOWARD A MONOGRAPH 


OF 


THE INSECTS OF THE CEPIDOPTEROUS FAMILY NOCTUID.E 


OF 


BOREAL NORTH AMERICA. 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS, 


BY 


JON. SMITER Sce.D:, 
Professor of Entomology in Rutgers College. 


WASHINGTON: 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1895, 





TABLE OF CONTENTS. 


imtraductory remarks and definitions: -........-22..s<-:--..<c. :.c..- J... 
Peneta wrongly classed a6 Deltoids.-.........2 oss. ices ned eee eee 
= UCTS TOTS CPS aN A 5 hi lo 
SE ENPSTELES TGS 2501) on TVS ne ee a ee a 
Sexual modification of male legs.........-- Shnts)aFreae atte eae ee ee eS 
Bee Ms UMS at ee nem Nae ee en, A ey Pe 
Acknowledgments ........ italia fate fait aioiete sha asia sisi Sak AT See 
PMOpsion mbes and pouera ss nse Sn 
BE MPROU EMAAR farce foe Merwe fs ene Cy Ir sie LS Te 
characters and scheme of division....2.....-..2..--.. 22220 ---- een eee 
SMa MSR ELIE) DECLEOR te SoM tui Saree ce yc gen a 
PCR OA, TMG AOUIER: Je = 6 Spe iin oes ye 
aR CANS SEH Retiro) Re eS ile toe 
characters and scheme of division........_.........-.---- 2-2. ---- ce. 
EE RIN Ot GUEURNORIENs sets een nate ay Ut te ere Te 
description suheaspecies 43.0 2. fas 8s ops ee 8 See: 
Genus HoRMIsA......... See eee aoe 
charseters,and-selieme.of divisidt*-...2..f.2.-.s.c0 2-0. ce 
pel OtabMeNpECleNo ese. ee eee oS 
MENGUipitGHe Gi LWOBNECIOS© 2. 2-0 <4... Se eet ook Scarce oD een 
Bem PoImOMmNRA tic cc-s8.~ ) ole ol 2. 
characters of the genus and species.............--..---..---2---..-- 
EEN INGEST ALESHSVELS CT's pea a age a Sl ame a ee 
eRe tm Mle On ihe MPELIGN 2208 5s eh 2 le ah a 
asa aM NGTOTIUT ACES eck te ok Swe cea TO 
characters of the genus and species... ....-.....-.--2.------- 2 eee. eee 
analysis of the species... .. Eee aa cane cas see Pan rihie: 
PES mpvionnegin tel syeetosuees=. <2 S84. be ak sity See ee. 
aE a SPP eee AE ee tay ee SS ean Zo AW > See eee 
characters of the genns and species .................°................. 
RUN e Rts aly ate SVC CIGNt BEA on kya os ANE eo 
Mose xBIeOeSOn MNO SRNCCIOS TY, 2.5 eae ons ee nS 
cere M ON TDE At were tke Ae PEA OK” eek en a te B 
characters of the genus and species....____- 
FIDO T ATS SS DUNT ECG ra ge a ea Pe oe 
eH eBay Lion GE TO SROGLON Goa 8 St ee et 
RRR nee Ae re Ge Gon fee oe 
characters and schenie of divisidn-......:2-<..2.... 0.0.0. 
eA AIS eae ED CCIG ay ie ee re ie? cia te aR 
Bene peLadn Gniersnecienie /.o ko we wee ee yeh 
ROME LMPIN UGA: 23.32 Loe sone oe 3 
nea MRE MECUMB TS TWO ane ok Okey lk Nar or 
SIS TTT HCY AG ATL Vere Oe 6 ne a 


13 
13, 14 
15-27 
15-17 

17 
17-37 
27-45 
27-31 
31, 32 
32-45 
45-50 
45, 46 

46 
46-50 
50-54 
50, 51 

51 


61-65 
61, 62 

62 
63-65 
65-76 
65-68 

68 
68-76 
76-78 
76, 77 
77, 78 


Wek CONTENTS. 


Page. 

GOWUS PELE DRO GRAMIMA a orate telat etal ete ee leet alee elt eel 78-80 
characters of thesgenus).o- aos ete ee ace ne see eee eee eee erase 78, 79 
description of the species ----2~ <2 - o 405 en aise eee eee eel 79, 80 
Genus! GABWRASA- se cc stator a <a ete elete eet ae eel aioe = el erate eteralata = eae eer 80-82 
characters: ofy the semis sce eee = ase erate aah eae eval eee ee ene 80, 81 
MESCLiptlONnsor thes PCClOS re oat pea te ae eet teeta ee ere ee 81, 82 
GenusiDERCETIS'=<2i.o-co2t ee tee nee e ee eee eee ee eee ee een 82-84 
characters!Of, they C@nUs te = ease ee oe ee eee eee ee eee 82, 83 
deseriptions:of the epetied: : 220. 2acetc cea eer aie ae ere 83, 84 
AYES RPA Ti ISERIES ete ore ete owas ae ee eo 84-88 
characters'of Ghe:renus ang species: - = 2 - .- s.---2 =i ee ee 84-86 
MeSeLIpiiOns Of stheISPECICS,- «2s lece- eee eee eee eee ee 86-88 
GENUS OAPIS =o sac ecco a eo se Ao ee eee eee ee oe eine ee eee 88, 89 
characters ofthe: genus = 52465242 eta eee ae eee ee eee 88 
GESCHIP LOM Ob wb lLC NS Pe CUES eet eee eee 88, 89 
(HUIS MSV. LE 0 CO Ae SaaS CSSErn eS eopipe eros SpoCos Mbp sor autos tensoo seat ia secs 89-91 
Characters Of thertemul Sie a eae ee se See tae aise eee eet eee eee 89, 90 
PyeEM ens! Le Uulitel SHEE e550 fossaGogbhogdodete buster seeero Swisnen oceans 90 
CleSeRip LIONS Ose PNG ES PC CLES ta eee etal tee ae eee ee 90, 91 
Genus iS OMOLOCHAl sae = tone spe sea ee oateccletaaieain a= =a eee 91-109 
characters;and scheme! of divisiOnss 15.52 -—eeer aaa eee eee ane sees 91-94 
anal ySISiO1b eS POCLOS se ase sae tae ae alo er Se Sead Sees 94, 95 
description ots thers pecies =eceme ose aera eae eee eee 95-109 
Gents LOMANALTES {22 22522 eos 5 fala aee te ree Sa TOE BER ee eee eer 109, 110 
characters of the) rents: 25-26 o.oo eee Omar ee eee era 109 
descripbion! of; the specres acca nae ee ote ee one ee eae renee eee 109, 116 

(Ge TNS PN AUT pe NCA Yeo eer gee ae i nae arrears 110-112 
characters: ofathe) cenus se +. settee on Se tae ae sere cera ete wate eerie ere eae 110, 111 
descriptionsiof thers pecies 22322 sacras 2 eista caret ieee aa ae ae ene 111-112 

GG mUIS MED VaP WINIAs snc cte es acct rea STS Ie Store Se et eee oo eee orient oer 112-118 
chanacters and schemeloted tvisione re s-— see seas sea eee eee ee eee 112-114 
analysisiof the speciess-c ccc ac sco one tases el ace ere este ee ae 114 
descriptionsrof TheIspecies sass ase sais ee asec aepa aloe ea ie 114-118 
Synonymical list of genera and species. .........-...-..----------+-------- 119, 120 
BExplanabionot- plates: --ssssseeens oes Seen een sa ee eee eee eta 121-126 


General Index 225 55.0255, Sea ee ee eR ee eee Ree 127-129 


CONTRIBUTIONS TOWARD A MONOGRAPH OF THE INSECTS OF THE LEPIDOP- 
TEROUS FAMILY NOCTUIDA) OF BOREAL NORTH AMERICA. 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS. 


By Joun B. Smiru, Sc. D., 
Professor of Entomology in Rutgers College. 


Under the general term “ Deltoids” there are usually grouped in 
lists, catalogues, and collections the moths of a series of species and 
genera which have a somewhat distinctive appearance and habitus, 
but for which we have as yet no exclusive characters. 

This series has been elevated to family rank, has been associated with 
the Pyralids, and has been most recently recognized as indistinguish- 
able in structural characters from the Noctuide. It is possible that sub- 
family rank at least should be accorded the series as here restricted; 
-but this is not proposed at present, since within the limits of the 
series there are two if not three very distinct types or tribes, of which 
Helia, Herminia, and Hypena are, respectively, typical. 

In a general way the species are characterized by unusually long 
palpi, which are either slender, closely scaled and curved upward and 
backward, sickle-like, often far exceeding the head, or they are directed 
forward obliquely or straight, clothed with upright scales, the second 
joint longest, the third always set into the second so as to point upward. 
In the latter case the palpi with the pointed frontal tuft form a beak or 
snout similar to that in the Crambidie among the Pyralids. These 
elongated palpi are not peculiar to this family among the Noctuids; 
but there are very few genera so constructed in other series, and these 
may be, in most cases, differentiated without trouble. Among the 
species in which the palpi form a snout, being oblique or straight, with 
elongated second joint, none are Deltoids that have the terminal joint 
drooping or set in at a downward angle with the second joint. Nor do 
I include any species in which the second joint is closely sealed above, 
the long vestiture directed downward, so that the apparent enlarge- 
ment of the joint is formed by scales directed and extending below the 
joint. This at first seems a slight character; but it will assume impor- 
tance when the character of the palpi is closely studied, and when we 
consider that it is really reversing the position of a joint. Of the forms 


7862—No, 48——1 


2 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


in which the palpi are slender, curving upward and exceeding the head, 
none are Deltoids in which the two pairs of wings are similar in size 
and maculation or have a geometriform ornamentation extending on 
both wings. Further, with the exception of Helia, all Deltoids with 
palpi of the character last described have the fore legs of the male 
modified, clothed with tufts or pencils of hair, and always with aborted 
tibia. 

With the exceptions stated, the series does not differ from other 
Noctuids in any essential features; yet it will be worth while to 
mention some of the other main characters. The head is always small, 
yet never retracted, and often prominent. In none of our species is 
the tongue aborted or even weak, so all of them are capable of feeding. 
The eyes are usually prominent, semiglobose, though never very large; 
always naked, though in some genera—only one in our fauna—fringed 
with hairy lashes. Ocelli are present in all our forms, situated close to 
the compound eye, but distinctly variable in their position relative to 
the posterior margin of the eye. In the Herminiini they are almost as 
far back as possible, while in Hypenini they are almost in the middle 
of the crown. The point of insertion of the antenne varies somewhat; 
but as in the matter of the ocelli our material is not yet sufficient to 
enable us to make studies on all the points involved or to generalize. 
The structure of the antenne is exceedingly interesting from the 
character of the sexual modifications; but this subject will be taken 
up again further on, and I need only say that they vary from simple to 
lengthily pectinated. 

The character of the palpi has been already referred to. 

The body is slight in most instances, never very robust. The thorax 
is closely scaled in general, tufted only in the Hypenini, where a robust 
structure is characteristic of the males. The abdomen 1s usually 
cylindric, without sexual differences, but in the female terminating in 
an abrupt point, while in the male it is truncated. While it is never 
short, the abdomen rarely exceeds the anal angle of the secondaries 
more than a little, and it as rarely fails to reach that point. Tuftings 
are only found in the Hypenini, where, 1 most of the species, there is 
a series of little round, truncated, dorsal tufts, composed of upright 
scales and very easily rubbed off. 

The legs are usually long and slender, though hardly weak. The 
thoracie structure tends to an elongation of the parts, the cox being 
in all cases well developed. The fore legs are short, the tibi usually 
short in comparison with the femur; but in the males of the Her- 
miniini the modifications are very curious and will be again referred 
to. The middle and posterior legs are longer, more as in the Pyralids, 
with extremely long and unequal tibial spurs, terminal on the median, 
terminal and at apical third on the posterior pair. The legs are closely 
sealed as a rule, but in some of the male Hypenini they, as well as the 
entire thoracic parts, become hairy or even woolly. 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. a 


The wings are usually large, but rarely frail, the two pairs propor- 
tionate, or the posterior enlarging at the expense of the anterior, as in 
the typical Hypena. We have a predominance of pale yellowish or 
luteous tints in the Herminiini, and of dark or dull brown hues, some- 
times with contrasting whites, and with a tendency to elevated black 
seales in the Hypenini. The ornamentation is usually simple, frequently 
consisting only of single transverse lines over a uniform base; but in 
some species variation apparently runs riot. The secondaries are always 
simply marked, usually nearly immaculate or with a vague median and 
extra median line, never with any striking ornamentation or with a 
continuation of that of the primaries. The venation is normal in most 
instances; that is to say, in the primaries the accessory cell is present, 
vein 5 is part of the series from the end of the median vein, and there 
is a Single internal vein, which is not, or but feebly, forked at base—a 
character of no real value to define a Noctuid. In the secondaries, vein 
5 is as strong or scarcely weaker than the others, and joins the median 
vein by an abrupt curve or bend a little before the forking of 3 and 4. 

No distinct cross vein is present in any species examined by me, and 
in all cases the origin of 5is from the median without a break in the con- 
tinuanceof the vein. Inthe Herminiinithereisa strong tendency toaloss 
of the accessory cell, and this increases in the aberrant forms, in which 
the wings are angulated, which lack it as arule. This is accompanied 
by a variation in the arrangement of the subcostal series of veins, and 
we may have 6, a stalk bearing 7, 8, and 9, and 10 from practically the 
same point at the end of the subcostal, or 10 may arise from the stalk 
bearing 7 to 9, while in rare instances 10 arises more basally and from the 
subcostal before the end. These variations are usually of generic value; 
but they must be cautiously used, for occasionally the accessory cell may 
be present or absent within the limits of the same genus. 

I have excluded from this series the genera Pseudorgyia and Rivula. 
Pseudorgyia, in my opinion, has no real Deltoid aftinities. The snout- 
like palpi and the pectinated male antenne are the only features that 
can be relied upon; but those same characters occur in the little aber- 
rant series of which Phiprosopus and Hucalyptera torm a part, and the 
antenne of the former and palpi of the latter mark the sum of the 
Deltoid characters. The palpi have the last joint drooping, and the 
enlargement of the second joint is by downward vestiture, exactly as 
in others of the series referred to. 

Rivula is more difficult to deal with, because of its venation. Tt 
lacks the accessory cell, and vein 10 of the primaries arises from the 
subcostal precisely as in some of the true Deltoid genera; but on the 
other hand vein 5 of the secondaries is decidedly weak and is lost 
basally in the texture of the wing or arises from a cross vein so weak 
that no trace of it remains in the mounted wing, and that quite near 
to the middle of the cell, though nearer to 4 than to 6, thus differing 
from all the others referred to this group, and agreeing with the char- 





4 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


acters of the Trifidee. The palpi also agree with the series of which 
Amolita, Cilla, and Hucalyptera form a part, and there its relatives must 
be sought. Finally the early stages are aberrant. The larva, accord- 


ing to Guenée, lives on low plants in moist localities; has sixteen feet, — 


resembles those of Pterophora in appearance, has a large, flattened 
head, is sluggish and when transforming into a pupa fastens itself by 
the cremaster as well as a girth in a horizontal position. This pupa 
has an obtuse head case with two distant. tubercles, above each of 
which are two diverging bristles. None of these characteristics are 
Deltoid, and for the reasons given I do not include the genus here. It 
may be stated that Herrich-Schaefter classed it with his Nycteolide, 
which may not have been such a huge blunder as has been thought. 

I have mentioned two tribes in the previous pages, the Herminiini 
and the Hypenini; but there is really another which contains in our 
fauna a single genus only—the Heliini, all referable to the genus 
Hpizeuxis. 

The Heliini are characterized by smoothly clothed palpi, curved 
upward close to the front, reaching to or considerably exceeding the 
vertex. The antenne in the male are laterally ciliated, without special 
modification or nodosity, and the fore legs in the male are peculiar in 
that the femur is unusually long, dilated at base, and excavated infe- 
riorly toward the apex to-receive the tibia, which is short and without 
special modification. ‘The wings are of good size, subparallel or with 
a Slightly oblique outer margin, so that the costal and inner margin are 
of nearly equal Jength. I have not been able to make out any special- 
ized sensory structures in the femoral excavation. This tribe is the 
least specialized of the Deltoid group. 

The Herminiini offer more decided characters, chiefly in the male, in 
palpi, antenne, feet, and wing form. The palpi may be slender, 
smoothly sealed, recurved; or they may be compressed, with upright 
vestiture, and then either oblique or straight, the middle joint always 
longest, and the upright vestiture either massed toward the tip or even 
throughout. In the male the palpi are frequently shorter, and are 
oblique when they are straight in the female. In one case only, Palthis, 
we have at the tip of the third joms a membraneous extension, forming 
aecover in which lies a pencil of long, yellow, hair-like seales, which 1s 
capable of expansion at the will of the insect. A more particular 
description of these pencils is given later on, but they are in all essen- 
tial features like those on the fore legs of other genera, and there are 
the same large sensory pits that are found elsewhere in association 
with these tuftings or pencils. 

The antenne in the Herminiini are always distinguished in some 
way in the male. In the tribe as a whole the front of the head is 
quite wide, and the antennal fovere are situated well up on the vertex, 
close to the compound eye, thus well separated at base. In their 
simplest structure they have the joints with moderate lateral bristles, 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 5 


but accompanied also in every ease with little tufts of cilie arising 
from small tubercles set into sensory pits of the most diverse character 
and varying greatly in number. Often the joints are clothed with 
scales which are somewhat elevated at tip and so arranged as to make 
them seem serrated or marked at the edges, an appearance not borne 
out by the joints themselves when denuded. The bristles become 
gradually longer, and are then reinforced by small processes or teeth 
which are pitted and give rise to sensory hairs. Usually there are 
tubercles also, or little pegs set in large pits, and from these arise single 
hairs or little tufts. The bristles gradually change to pectinations, 
long or Short, never more than one to each side of each joint, and these 
in turn are furnished with lateral ciliations, regular or irregular. Some- 
times there is a stout bristle inserted near the tip of the pectination, 
in a deep pit, a little protuberance on the branch giving additional 
support. There is also considerable variation in the length of the 
pectinations, and as they increase in length they usually become less 
robust. Where they are short and stout additional tubercles or pits 
with tufts or single hairs become more numerous. 

In addition to these normal structures of the antenne there are others 
that are decidedly unusual, always placed at about one-third from the 
base. This abnormity may consist of a mere thickening of the sealy 
clothing, the individual scales becoming larger in every direction, and 
they may or may not cover a shghtly enlarged joint or two. Sometimes 
beneath the tuft of scales one, two, or three joints will have, in lieu of 
ordinary pectinations, stout, short, pointed, straight or curved, brown, 
corneous processes, two of which are usually contiguous at tip, so as to 
seem under a low-power hand lens the point of asingle process. Where 
such processes occur the joints are often considerably broader and 
shorter and sometimes have numerous pittings with or without bristles, 
hairs, or pegs. In such eases, also, the pectinations or lateral processes 
of the antenne are wanting, or at least much abbreviated, on the inner 
side from the base to this specialization. These processes attain their 
maximum development in Zanclognatha, andare always associated with 
a pectinated or strongly bristled antenna, and with strongly tufted 
anterior legs. Associated aiso with the modifications of the jomts there 
is a greater or less marked change in the continuity of the antenna as 
a whole, sometimes amounting to a distinet curve. 

In Tetanolita we have a distinct departure in a different direction 
in the form of a pointed tuft of hair on the inner side, covering no 
special modification save two slightly enlarged jcints.. In Renia the 
modification has assumed more definite form, and the tuft becomes quite 
prominent. We notice also that the antenne are more slender beyond 
the tuft, that there is a tendency to curl, and that there seems to have 
been quite a definite change in structure at the point covered by the 
tuft. After proper preparation for study under the microscope this is 
seen to be the fact, one of the joints being much elongated and also 


6 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


much curved, forming a very distinct ‘‘scoop-out.” Opposed to this 1s 
a movable finger-like process, with hooked bristles at its tip, supple- 
mented by two or even three other less specialized processes. 

What is the purpose of all these specializations, and why have they 
been developed? 

To the latter part of the question I have no answer, save as the strue- 
tures are sensory in character. It is usually conceded that the olfac- 
tory organs and the sense of smell are situated in the antenne, and 
that the development of pectinations and sensory hairs is necessary to 
enable the male to find the female more readily. This explanation may 
be considered as correct, but 1t gives no reason why so simple a struc- 
ture answers the purpose in the one case and why so extremely com- 
plicated an apparatus should be required in the other. The sense of 
touch is also placed in the antennze by students, and also without 
doubt, so far as I am concerned, correctly. I would, however, in cases 
of this character consider it rather a sense of appreciation than a sense 
of touch, and possibly this sense of appreciation may cover those of 
touch and hearing, being reduced to an appreciation of certain disturb- 
ances in the atmosphere acting upon the extremely sensitive hair, which 
communicate, directly or indirectly, with nerve fibers. That they are 
not required by the species to maintain its existence is proved, of course, 
by the fact that the female has no such sensitive or sensory structures, 
and hence we assume that they are of use in recognizing the presence 
ot that sex by the male. 

The other processes stand on adifferent footing. They are mechanical, 
not sensory in their character, and we assume that they have a sexual 
function for the reason above given—they are found in one sex only. L 
have never myself seen any species of this series in copulation, nor 
have I found any who have seen it. So far as lam aware, no publication 
to which I have had access has described the process; hence the subject 
is one for conjecture. Judging from what we know of certain species of 
Coleoptera these mechanical modifications are clasping organs, enabling 
the male to encirele and tightly hold the female antenne during copu- 
lation. Why the necessity for such organs exists in the present series 
still remains a question. 

The most interesting modifications, however, are those of the male 
forelegs, and in this entire tribe not a single species has a quite normal 
structure of this member. Irrespective of all tuftings, the proportion 
of the parts becomes changed. 

The coxa, usually not mobile but rigidly applied to the thoracic mass, 
becomes movable, loses rigidity, and gradually becomes elongated and 
attenuated, forming a functional part of the leg. 

The trochanter, which is inconspicuous normally, tends to increase in 
length until it exceeds the femur in size in every dimension, giving us 
a very distinet additional member in the leg structure. No specializa- 
tions of a sensory character are developed on this segment so far as 
our species are concerned, 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH t 


The femur tends to an increase of size and weight in one grou; of 
species and in the opposite direction in others, its decrease usually 
corresponding to an increased length of trochanter. Sometimes there 
is an enlargement toward the apex, and quite usually the member is 4 
mere shell, adapted to accommodate and conceal a pencil of hair or a 
mass of specialized scales. Occasionally there will be found on the 
under side an area of specialized pits somewhat protuberant or raised 
above the surrounding level, forming, apparently, an extremely sens1- 
tive surface. 

The tibial modifications are yet more radical, The member itself is 
shortened, sometimes so much as to make it a mere rudiment; but it 
always is of sufficient size to bear a relatively large epiphysis, and an 
altogether disproportionate appendage which seems a continuation of 
the outer wall and extends to the tip of the first tarsal joint if it does 
not include the entire tarsus. This appendage is sometimes quite 
slender, sometimes enormously expanded and shield-like, and usually 
covers a mass of specialized scales and, very frequently also, tufts or 
pencils of hair. It is often clothed with stiff hair outwardly, and when 
cut or crushed is found to have the inner surface a mass of specialized 
sensory pits. The epiphysis is always present and relatively large. 
In many eases the covering is furmshed at the edges with curved hook- 
lets, which are closely set and fit into corresponding fovere on the tibia. 

The tarsi are variously modified. In all cases the first joint is enor. 
mously elongated, often equaling the femur, and it is also mueh thick- 
ened. This thickening is more apparent than real, however, for in 
most cases the outer edge of the Joint 1s so deeply excavated that it is 
a mere shell. Occasionally there will be found near the tip a ladle- 
shaped appendage, attached by the handle, the bowl directed toward 
base, and the edges of this bowl furnished with hooklets. This seems 
to be applied to some point in the tibial process; but exactly what pur- 
pose it serves I have not been able toascertain. ‘The other tarsal joints 
are normal as a rule; but not infrequently they are much shortened 
and partially aborted, the terminal article sometimes balbous and with 
hugely developed claws. So greatly elongated are the legs as a whole 
‘that when turned back they extend far behind the anal angle of the 
secondaries and almost as far as the tips of the posterior legs. 

Specialized appendages in the form of scales and tufts or pencils of 
hair have been mentioned and merit close study. The coxa is usually 
hollowed out on its anterior face, and in the cavity are inserted long, 
yellow or blackish hair-like scales, those near the base longest, gradu- 
ally decreasing in length, so the entire mass may le fully extended 
when at rest. When the leg is extended this mass of hair may be 
expanded somewhat fan-like. When at rest the femur covers this coxal 
excavation and both conceals and protects the tufting, now neatly 
folded away. At first sight this and similar pencils appear to consist 
of fine silky hair; but under the microscope it is found that there are 


8 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


really greatly elongated scales, the shank being a very attenuated 
cylinder, while the tip is semetimes dilated, club like, and sometimes 
fan-hke, but never very much enlarged. The shorter they become the 
more distinct is the scaly character of these pencils; but for conven- 
ience and as expressive of their actual apbearanee they will be referred 
to as tufts or pencils of hair. 

The femur in this tribe is quite usually supplied with a peneil of long 
hair, attached to the upper side near the tip and lying in a groove 
which includes nearly all there is of the femur. In length this pen- 
el equals the trochanter and femur combined, and when at rest it 
folds back, the femur is applied to the coxa, and the groove is thus 
closed. By this application of the femoral groove to the groove in the 
coxa the pencils of hair on these parts lie together in what is then a 
closed cylinder or elongated capsule. When the leg is extended the 
femoral pencil may be erected and expanded fan-like, forming in many 
cases more than three-fourths of a complete disk. The tibial process 
quite frequently covers another pencil of similar hair which, while it 
may be dilated, spreads out loosely in all directions and not fan like. 
Quite usually, when no distinet pencil of hair is present, the process 
covers a loose mass of specialized shorter scales, while huge scales 
fringe the edges of the process. The latter folds around the elongated 
first tarsal joint, which is often grooved to conceal or protect the tibial 
tuft. No tufts of hair or scales are on the tarsi. 

A specimen with its fore legs extended and all the pencils of hair 
expanded is a curious and interesting sight. Zanclognatha laevigata 
and Chytolita morbidalis, both common species, have these tuftings well 
developed. 

What purpose do these structures serve? That they are sensory is 
reasonably certain, from the facts that they are connected with special- 
ized pittings and are so carefully provided with protective coverings 
when not in actual use. In my earlier writings I called them “ seent 
organs,” following those German authors who consider them ‘ Dutt 
apparate.” The suggestion is, that certain glands connected with 
these pencils secrete some substanee which is odorous and which 
through the pittings or pores of the integument bring their secretions 
into contact with the pencils of hair, by means of which the odor is 
gradually diffused. That this odor is connected with the sexual fune- 
tion is universally assumed; but just how, is not so clear. It can not 
be that the odor is meant to attract the female, for the attractionis the 
other way, and the male seeks out the opposite sex. If thetufts came 
into play in courting it would seem as though there should be some 
corresponding organ for the appreciations of. the odors in the female; 
but I have entirely failed to find any such. In actual copulation there 
seems no function that could be filled by these structures. They must 
be, for the present, classed among those appendages with the use of 
which we are not fully acquainted. It is indeed remarkable that 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS——SMITH. a 


throughout this tribe antennal developments and leg structures should 
be closely correlated; for with the most liberally tufted legs are asso- 
ciated the antenne with the longest pectinations or bristles and the 
most highly developed appreciative organs. 

The genera in this tribe are quite numerous, and divide readily into 
two series, in one of which the palpi are slender, closely sealed, upeurved, 
and often recurved, the second joint never straight or with upright 
vestiture forming a blade-like structure. In the other the palpi are 
straight or oblique, never recurved, the second joint always with 
upright scales, forming a compressed more or less blade-like structure; 
the latter series in this particular agrees with Hypena, while the former 
agrees with Helia. 

Among the genera with slender palpi Zanclognatha and Hormisa have 
at the basal third of the male antennie two or three joints furnished 
with stout corneous processes and an outer thickening of scales. Zan 
clognatha has the male antenne with long lateral bristles. while in 
Hormisa there are long pectinations. These genera are well associated 
and are conveniently placed at the head of the series. In both, the 
tuftings of the fore legs of the male are well developed, reaching their 
extreme in some species of Hormisa. 

Tetanolita has the male antennie laterally bristled, and at basal third 
there is a pointed tuft of hair, very similar to that of Renia, but it does 
not cover any special modification except a slightly enlarged joint or 
two. The tuftings of the male fore legs are moderately well developed. 
This genus, contaming small species, shows marked relationship to 
Bleptina and Renia, and its natural position is between these genera 
and not immediately following Hormisa, where convenience of analysis 
has placed it. 

Bleptina has the antenne laterally bristled in the male, without special 
modification of any kind at basal third. The tufting of the male 
fore legs is much reduced. Unhke all the other genera with which it 
is associated it has narrow, elongate, and pointed wings. The palpi 
are transversely flattened, but are curved and do not have prominent 
upright scales. Jt forms a connecting link to the second series, and is 
allied to Renia. 

In the series in which the palpi are straight or oblique and blade-like, 
with upright scales, some differences in venation and wing form oceur. 

The accessory cell is present, and the venation is quite normal in 
Philometra, Chytolita, Hypenula, and Dercetis. It is absent and the vena- 
tion isabnormal in Renia, Heterogramma, Gaberasa, and Palthis. 

Philometra has lengthily bipectinated male antennie, without special 
modification or nodosity at basal third. The tuftings on the fore legs 
are very strongly marked, resembling Hormisa in these characters, as in 
the antenne. Its natural position is immediately after Hormisa, trom 
whieh it differs in palpal structure as well as in the lack of special 
antennal modification, 


10 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


Chytolita has the male antennie bristled, and has at basal third a 
nodosity, covering three enlarged joints, which are furnished with cor- 
neous processes. The male fore legs are prominently tufted, but abor- 
tion is not carried so far as in the preceding genus, which it follows 
naturally. 

Bleptina and Tetanolita should follow the preceding in a natural 
arrangement. 

Hypenula is a curiously dark form which at first sight suggests the 
tribe Hypenini, but has the wing form of the present series, and, as 
well, the tufting of the male fore iegs, which, however,is not prominent. 
The male antenne are laterally bristled, but have no special modifi- 
ration. Ina natural sequence this genus should come after Renia. 

Derecetis is a genus with curious little species in which the male 
antennie are pectinated, the branches proportionately very stout, the 
male fore legs tufted, and the primaries broad, trigonate, the outer 
margin angulated at middle and excavated below the apex. It should 
be associated with Gaberasa and Palthis, from which it differs by the 
presence of the accessory cell. 

Reniais a genus composed of large species in which the apices of 
the primaries are usually somewhat marked. The lack of accessory cell 
will distinguish it at once from all the other genera of larger insects in 
which the wings are not angulated. The male antennz are peculiar in 
the presence of a pointed tuft of hair toward the middle, covering a 
distinct bend or curve, and beyoud which the stem is much more slender 
and inclined to curl. They are laterally bristled, and the structure is 
unique. The tuftings of the male fore legs are practically obsolete, and 
the anterior tibial process is much reduced. The genus should follow 
Bleptina, and should be in turn followed by Hypenula, though this 
aftords strong leanings toward the Zanclognatha type. 

Heterogramma has the fore wings angulated, the male antennie later- 
ally bristled. The fore legs of the male have a large tibia! process 
covering a mass of large scales, but forming no distinet tufts. At the 
base of the long first tarsal joint is a peculiar ladle-shaped appendage, 
which has been previously mentioned. The genus follows naturally 
after Hypenula, and is easy of recognition by the characters given. 

Gaberasa resembles Heterogramma in the female and in all the fea- 
tures of the male, save that the primaries in that sex are cleft for 
nearly one-third of their distance from the margin, making a distine- 
tive and unique feature in our Deltoid fauna. 

Palthisis a remarkable little genus. The fore wings are narrow, 
pointed, the outer margin angulated and very oblique. The antenne 
of the male are laterally bristled and not specially modified. The palpi 
in that sex are peculiar in the development of a long membranous 
appendage to the third joint, extending back to the base of the thorax, 
and to this appendage is attached a tuft or pencil of hair, capable of 
expansion, Similar to the tuftings on the fore legs in other genera. 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 11 


The fore tibia in the male has the process very large, mop-like at tip, 
with the dense mass of scales, but without a special hair pencil. The 
long tarsal joint is furnished with a small pencil, seemingly not capa- 
ble of expansion, and rather ornamental, and also with a ladle-like 
appendage toward the tip, similar to that in Heterogramma. It would 
be almost impossible to mistake this genus, with which the present 
tribe may be closed. 

The characters of the Hypenini as compared with the Herminiiniare 
largely negative, that is they possess none of the specializations in which 
the latter are sorich. The male fore legs are quite normal, the antennwe 
are at most ciliated and to allappearance not unlike those of the female. 
The palpi are all after one type, long or moderate, oblique or straight, 
never closely applied to the front or recurved, second joint always 
straight, with upright vestiture as in the second group of Herminiini. 
While there are no sexual modifications of a secondary character in 
this tribe, the male is quite usually larger, nearly always more somber 
and even in color, without strong contrasts; the female is often quite 
brightly and contrastingly marked. Often the male is also much 
more robust, clethed with loose woolly vestiture on the legs and under- 
side, while the palpi are frequently shorter and more oblique. Asa 
whole the species in this tribe are darker colored and do not have the 
frail or thinly sealed appearance characteristic of the Herminiini. 
With the exception of Capis all the genera have the abdomen with a 
series of little dorsal tufts, of which that at base is most prominent. 
These tufts are round, small, truncated at tip, scaly, and very easily 
removed by slight rubbing; therefore it 1s rarely that a quite perfect 
specimen can be found, 

Capis is the aberrant genus of the tribe, and I am not at all con- 
vinced that it is really a Deltoid. The palpi only separate the species 
from the Caradrina series, though vein five of the secondaries is usually 
quite strong; yet this is a somewhat variable feature in the species. 
Iiven the palpi are not strictly Deltoid in character; for although they 
are longer than usual and oblique, yet the vestiture is directed in both 
directions and the second joint is rather clavate at tip. As in this 
tribe the palpi tend somewhat in this direction, I did not feel myself 
justified in excluding the genus. It differs from all the others in the 
tribe by its complete lack of dorsal tuftings on the abdomen, by the 
short palpi, and by the short obtuse wings. 

Salia is a true Hypenid genus with moderately long, quite oblique 
palpi, forming with the prominent frontal tuft a distinct snout. The 
wings are moderate, widening regularly from the base; the apices are 
acute, the outer margin very oblique. The markings are quite charac- 
teristic, forming oblique pale bands on a pearl-gray ground. 

Bomolocha is the genus most numerously represented in our fauna 
and it includes somewhat divergent forms. The palpi range from mod- 
erate to very long, rigidly straight to oblique, and there may or may 
not be a sexual difference in this particular. The wings are always 


i BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


broad and trigonate with marked or rectangular apices, never greatly 
extended, the outer margin moderately oblique, sometimes a little 
marked centrally. It is not unlikely that this genus may come to be 
broken up some day, when there is sufficient material from other faunal 
regions to compare with our own. At present it has seemed to me 
difficult to draw lines -without creating even more names than Mr. 
Grote has proposed. 

Lomanaltes differs from Bomolocha only in the greatly extended 
apices and the very oblique outer margin of the primaries. The palpi 
do not differ from those of edictalis, and no other characters of value 
have been discovered; the genus resting thus mainly upon wing form 
and general habitus. From Salia it difters by the long palpi. 

Plathypena is a very good genus; robust, especially in the male, the 
palpi rather short, primaries narrow, apices marked, outer margin 
evenly and obliquely curved, inner Inargin sinuate, relieving the inter- 
nal angle which thus forms a sort of tooth or projection. This char- 
acter is unique and thus separates the genus from Hypena, to which the 
narrow primaries and ample secondaries would otherwise ally it. 

Hypena, which is placed at the end of the series as an extreme of the 
development of its type, has narrow primaries and large broad second- 
aries. In the primaries the inner margin is even, not sinuate, the hind 
angle not in the least produced but rather rounded. The apices are 
marked, while the outer margin is usually more or less markedly angu- 
lated atits middle. In this genus also we find the longest palpi of this 
entire series, projected directly forward, snout-like. 

The species so far as they occur in our fauna are largely found east 

‘of the Rocky Mountains. Only four genera occur on the Pacifie Coast: 
Lpizeuris witha variety of our common EZ. lubricalis; Heterogramma. with 
one species, H. palligera, found in the West exclusively; and Hypena, all 
the species of which reach California and Vancouver, while three of 
the species are confined to that fauna. Very few species extend into 
Colorado, though one species of Renia found there seems peculiar to 
that State. Quite a number of species range into Texas, which seems, 
however, to have nothing that is at all peculiar, Arizona seems 
extremely poor in Deltoids, and there is only one species of Salia that 
is thus far confined to it. 

The real home of the group is in that region extending from Maine 
through Canada, west to the Great Lakes, southward along the Mis- 
sissippi, and eastward through Ohio, along the southern boundary of 
Pennsylvania to the Atlantie Coast. In this region most of the species 
now known to us occur, and some of them are confined to it or even the 
more northern and eastern portions of it. 

All the species fly at night and are readily attracted to light and 
Sugar; but many of them also start freely during the day, flying iike 
Geometers and frequenting similar situations. Some forms are abun- 
dant in grass lands and may be found on fences or on bark of trees, 
and of these are the Hypenim, whieh readily escape observation by 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. ae 


their dark colors. The Herminiini are more frequent in open wood 
lands where there is considerable undergrowth, and among the short 
herbage I have started up Zanclognatha, Chytolita, Hormisa, and Phil 
ometra. The species are not rare, but they rub very readily and are 
not favorites with collectors, 

Few of the larve of our species are known. According to Mr. Henry 
Edwards’ catalogue of described early stages there are eight species 
only, and of these at least two are somewhat doubtfully known. Yet 
in this series larval characters may aid in fixing the rank that should 
be given the Hypenini and Herminini. So far as my knowledge 
extends all the former are semiloopers, lacking one pair of abdominal 
legs, while all of the latter have the abdominal legs complete. The 
Helini are yet uncertain, but have, probably, sixteen feet. 

The insects are not well represented in most collections, either in 
number or in character. Most of them rub so readily that they are 
thrown away betore spreading if collected with other material in a 
bottle, and after one or two experiences of this kind the collector does 
not take them at all. For my studies I used as a basis the collection 
of the United States National Museum, through the courtesy of the 
Museum officials. This collection is unusually rich in Deltoids, because 
for a time I made special efforts to obtain material for study and col 
lected considerable for my personal collection, now in the Museum. 
At New Brunswick the collection is a very fair one in some directions, 
and this afforded most of the material for dissections aud for the 
mounts from which drawings were made. 

From Dr. J. A. Lintner I have received a large series of specimens In 
good condition, giving excellent opportunity for the study of variations. 

Mr. G. C. Davis kindly sent me all the Deltoids of the Tepper col- 
lection, and also those of the Michigan A gricultural College, containing 
very good material. 

Prof. J. H. Comstock sent me a box of specimens taken at Ithaca, 
which illustrated the character of the local fauna. 

From Mr. Neumoegen’s collection [ had a number of types of species 
described by Mr. Grote, while all the types from the American Ento- 
mological Society have been in my hands for study and comparison. 

Several other friends and correspondents have sent me such speci- 
mens as I needed and asked for, so | have had before me all save two 
of the described species, and with those fam autoptically acquainted. 
As all of Walker’s names have now been applied, the present classi. 
fication of the American Deltoids may be fairly considered as well 
grounded. 

SYNOPSIS OF THE GENERA AND HIGHER GROUPS OF DELTOID MOTHS. 
1. Palpi slender, upcurved along the front; anterior femora of the male thick- 
ened paseyeserthe lem normals. £2 s2522. 22554... ele wee Heliini, 2. 
Palpi slender, upeurved; or straight or oblique, with upright scaly vestiture, 
making them blade-like; the fore legs of the male always modified 
and tufted, tibia always abbreviated and with a long anterior process, 
Herminiini, 3. 


14 


BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


1. Palpi straight or oblique, with upright scaly vestiture, this transversely 
compressed; anterior legs of male entirely normal. -......--. Hypenini, 14. 

2. Male antenne ciliated, without special modifications; primaries with obtuse 
apices and rounded outermanrsine o2-- 22s see ease eee EPIZEUXIS (p. 15) 

3. Palpi slender, smoothly scaled, upeuryed along the front; sickle-shaped.... 4. 


ol 


om) 


10. 


ital 
12. 


13. 


i 
= 


Palpi transversely compressed, straight or oblique; never applied to the 
front; clothed with upmght scales, giving it a ragged blade-like 


ADP CA AICO re ns he mi et ae al ea 8 
Male antenna with two or three joints at basal third furnished with pointed 
COLNECOUS PLOCESSES, COMELEC iyNSCail eS een eee 5. 
Male antenne with a pointed tuft of hair at basal third, but no special 
PLroCeSsGS.. 225.2522 otek eee ee. Oe PeNe Eee eee Ae ee: 6. 
Maile antenna. ciliated: simply, fac 2-s oes ne ee eee = eee ee 
Male antenne laterally bristled 22.-2- 2£..-:.-:.-. 2--.-- ZANCLOGNATHA (p. 27) 
Malevantennie sbipectinated 22 2> = eee a = eee eee HORMISA (p. 45). 
Male antennie bristled; primaries obtuse, trigonate-.--.. ~.-- TETANOLITA (p.6 
Primaries narrow, with acute apex and oblique outer margin . BLEPTINA (p 57). 
Primaries wath) the accessory cellipresemtesse- ee eee ee ee eee 9. 
ErIMAries wabhout accessory cells) ena. can ee sae ee See ee ee 12. 
Primaries angulated, ihe middle of outer margin produced, excavated below 
BPOR Sess Sion Soe Be cae eens + aye ew Bete el aetna ee HG 
Primaries'not am oulated 2:2 2520) o eos a2 Sisco cers eae ene ee 10. 
Antenne of the male lengthily bipectinated, without¢special modification at 
basal third: &. ostasass hase S22 2 eee eee eee een PHILOMETRA (p. 50). 
Antenne of male laterally bristled, with a nodosity covering two or three 
corneous processes at basal third ..... -.-.--22----<-:- CHYTOLITA (p. 54). 
Antenne of male ciliated, without special modifications. ..-. AYPENULA & 76). 
Male antennz coarsely pectinated---..-.. ..-.-.-.--.-..-.-.--DERCETIS (p82) 
Primaries not angulated, apex distinct or rectangular; male antennie see 
a pointed tuff of hair at basal third, covering a bend and finger-like 
PIOCESS: Sek Bie Bol athe he eis oie tie SR are pe ees eee RENIA (p 65). 
Primaries with the outer margin produced at middle, angulated; usually a 
little excavated below apex; male antennz bristled_..-............. 13. 
Primaries broad, entire in both sexes; palpi normal --.. HereEROGRAMMA (p. 78). 
Primaries broad; in the male cleft or split from the middle of the outer 
Marci Wearinsone-vhiTd nar eee eee ee eee GABERASA (p. 80) 
Primaries narrow, pointed, entire; palpi of male with a membranous append- 
age furnished with along pencil of hair:.-4-------.----= PALTHIS (p 84). 
Primaries with apices obtuse, outer margin rounded -........----- CAPIS (p 28). 


Primaries broad, trigonate, apices marked, outer margin oblique and 
rounded, with a variably marked though always slight angulation at 
mide: oi a eS Se cr a pee eens ne ene ee BOMOLOCHIA (p. 91). 

Primaries broad, trigonate, with lengthily produced apices and very ob- 
liquely reunded outer margin; palpi very long and straight. 

z LOMANALTES (p. 109). 

Primaries narrower, with acute apices and oblique outer margin ;*palpi short, 
oOpDligue, forming a poimted snonibe ——- ess eee eee SALIA (p_ 39). 

Primaries narrow, secondaries very broad. 

Inner margin of primaries sinuate, Inner angle produced, prominent 
PLATHYPENA (p. 110). 
Inner margin of primaries even, inner angle rounded ----. HYPENA (p. 112), 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. ro 


Genus EPIZEUXIS, Hiibner. 
1816. Hiibner, Verzeichniss, 346. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 132. 
1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soe., LV, 307. 
Helia, Guenée. 
1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 76. 
Pseudaglossa, Grote. 
1874. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., 11, 47. 

Eyes naked, large, globose. Front smooth; antenne, situated on 
the vertex and close to the compound eye; ocelli small, situated behind 
the antenne and also close to the compound eye. Antenne moderate 
in length; in the male with lateral bristles and hair tufts, sometimes 
sealy, not alike in any two species, therefore separately described for 
each; in the female they are simple with shorter lateral bristles. The 
palpi are moderate or elougate, closely scaled or with rather rough 
vestiture, always upeurved, more or less sickle-shaped, always reaching 
the vertex and sometimes extending far beyond it, their terminal joint 
moderate or nearly equaling the second in length and acutely termi. 
nated. The tongue is moderately well developed. The bodyis moderate 
or rather slight, the thorax proportionately small, untufted, the abdo- 
men longer, reaching to or exceeding the anal angle of the secondaries; 
cylindrical, untufted. The legs are smoothly scaled, proportionate, 
unarmed save for the usual spurs. In the male the anterior femur is 
somewhat enlarged at base, inferioriy excavated toward the tip to 
receive the short tibia, in which the epiphysis is larger than in ihe female. 
In the latter sex the anterior leg is normal. 

The wings are rather large in proportion to the body, varying some- 
what from a strictly trigonate type to a somewhat elongate form, but 
hardly subequal, though inner and costai margin are nearly of the same 
length. 

The ornamentation is very similar throughout and consists of strongly 
dentated transverse dark lines, accompanied by white or pale shade 
lines. As the ground color is light or dark the black or white parts of 
the lines become more prominent. The secondaries are usually some 
what paler than the ground color and are also marked with more or less 
obvious transverse lines. 

There is a great deal of variation in size and some in appearance 
among the species of this genus and the female is, as a rule, the larger. 

Mr. Grote’s reason for accepting Hpizeuris rather than Helia for this 
genus seems to be well founded, and my acceptance of the term does not 
imply that I consider our species distinct from the European forms 
referred to under Guenée’s generic term. 

There are two fairly well marked series in the species of this genus 
which might almost be considered as being of generie value but for the 
occurrence of intermediate forms. 

The first of these series is characterized at a glance by the smooth, 
glistening vestiture, the scales being closely appressed, and with a 





16 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


shining, almost greasy appearance. The palpi are long, closely scaled, 
upeurved, and sickle-shaped, considerably exceeding the vertex, and 
the terminal joint is nearly as long as the second and acutely termi- 
nated. The tarsal claws, so far as examined, are simple. To this 
series Mr. Grote has applied the term Pseudaglossa, and it contains 
four species, 

BE. lubricalis is a smoky, blackish brown species, in which the trans- 
verse lines are obscurely pale and broken, and the darker accompany- 
ing lines only faintly traceable. It varies very decidedly in size and 
to some extent in wing form; but it has a characteristic appearance 
difficult to mistake. Sometimes pa — pecimens occur, and in these the 
dark transverse lines are evident, . e pale lines being more or less 
completely merged into the ground. ; 

FE. denticulalis is closely allied, with almost exactly the same mark- 
ings; but it is of a dull, pale luteous ground color, powdered with 
brown scales, and the transverse lines are blackish. From pale forms 
of the preceding it is distinguished by having the space between the 
median and transverse posterior line dark filled toward the inner 
margin, which gives the wing a quite characteristic appearance. 

HE. rotundalis is a much smaller species than either of the preceding, 
and is, indeed, the smallest in the genus. The primaries are usually 
an almost uniform smoky brown, the markings being barely percept- 
ible in local varieties only and the secondaries are almost as free from 
maculation, though much paler. The species is not easily mistaken. 

EB. scobialis is not much larger than the last preceding; but the 
ground color is almost black, and lacks e'most completely the gi. icy 
ing appearance, while the transverse lines are quite distinctly white, 
narrow, and broken, in sharp contras the others. 

Intermediate between the above series and that next following is 
EB, laurentii, described by me. In appearance it belongs at first sight 
with the following, having a powdery vestiture without gloss; but the 
palpi are quite decidedly like those of H. scobialis, and it resembles 
that species in the dark color of the primaries and the narrow distinct 
median lines. The secondaries are pale, however, and distinctly 
marked by transverse lines. 2. scobialis and EF. laurentii further agree 
in having the abdomen black with narrow white rings margining the 
segments. The tarsal claws are toothed, resembling the following 
series. 

The second series to which reference has been made differs in the 
rougher vestiture without any trace of sheen or glisten, and on the 
contrary a tendency to the powdery appearance marked in LH. laurentii. 
The palpi are more robust and are not nearly so long, reaching to the | 
vertex or slightly exceeding it, except in 2. majoralis, in which we have 
a tendency to the preceding series, though the terminal joint is not so 
acutely terminated. In this series the tarsal claws are toothed, and 
three species are reterable to it. 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. _ re 


HE. majoralis is a species which has been confused with both 2. emaula 
‘and EL. americalis and is in some respects intermediate between them, 
possessing characters however that ally it very strongly to series 1. 
It is the largest of the species of the second series, and in wing form 
is very like specimens of LH. lubricalis of the same size and less trigo- 
nate than in either of the others. The palpi considerably exceed the 
vertex and are longer than in either of its nearer associates, though 
as much shorter than in LW. lubricalis. In color and maculation it is 
dusky and powdery like 2. emula; but it has a distinet prominent 
preceding shade to the costal region of the subterminal line, and in 
this it resembles #. americalis..« 91, 

'H. americalis is whitish ashen Zray in color, with the transverse lines 
distinetly marked, the median shade being especially prominent, and 
the subterminal line preceded by a distinct black shade. 

HH. emula is a more even, dull gray, very much powdered and with- 
out any sharp contrast in maculation; though all the lines are usually 
distinct and very like the preceding. 


ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES OF EPIZEUNXIS. 


Palpi much exceeding the vertex, terminal joint acute, closely scaled, nearly as long 
as the second. 
Vestiture smooth, glistening. 
The ground color is smoky black, median lines pale; median space even, 
LUBRICALIS. 
The ground color is dully sordid luteous, the median lines blackish; a dusky, 
subquadrate patch in the outer lower angle of the median space, 


el he DENTICULALIS. 
Ground color smoky black. all the lines obsolete or but vaguely traceable: 
TRNGL YEAS PECLES, seretees ane Ss cen eS eae eee Soe ROTUNDALIS., 

+ 


Ground color black, seconda:. 'S scarcely paler; lines narrow, broken, con- 
TALS Oe MPL UO epee fee re rs Oe tse ee cee kee nea hewn SCOBIALIS. 
Vestiture rough, not glistening, powdery. 
Blackish gray, the maculation distinct, lines narrow, black and white, 
STLETE CIN OW an CLL LU Cts UES Pee a orca nee pent ae a cane ee a any Rtas LAURENTII, 
Palpi reaching to or somewhat exceeding vertex; terminal joint usually considera- 
bly shorter than the second, more roughly clothed, not so acutely ter- 
minated, 
Maculation contrasting; blackish, sharply marked on a light gray ground, size 
MO Meralerma ses eee eT ne et lea fn OM RARER CALIS: 
Maculation not contrasting except for a black costal blotch preceding the sub- 
terminal line; ground color powdery dull gray, suffused with yellowish; 
SUA Co US oe rece ees Araceae A te AL kee eee cee ate a MATORALIS. 
Maculation obscure, not contrasting ; ground color dull gray, powdery over 
PeEUULCOUN TEAL Ze mod enMG ss Sse escs occ cio Goss fee ek Baw ees Sooke EMULA. 


Epizeuxis lubricalis, Geyer. 


1832. Geyer, Zutriige, IV, 19 figs. 665, 666, Lpizeuxis. 

1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 77, Helia. 

1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 135, Ppizeuris. 
1874. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sei., If, 47, Pseudaglossa 

1881. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, XIII, 91, Lpizeurs. 


7862—No. 48 


» 
_ 





18 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


1880. Coquillett, Canadian Entomologist, XII, 44, iarva. 
phealis, Guenée. 

1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 76, Helia. 

1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, X VI, 133, Hpizeuxis. 

1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., LV, 308, Helia. 

1874. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., I, 47, pr. syn. 

1883. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, XIII, 91, pr. syn. 
surrectatis, Walker. 

1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 241, Bleptina. 

1877. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, IX, 29, pr. syn. 
var. occidentalis, Smith. 

1884. Smith, Bull. BkIn. Entomological Soc., VII, 5, pr. var. 

Ground color of body and fore wings a dark, sooty, glistening, black- 
ish brown; abdomen and secondaries paler with a yellowish tinge. 
Head and thorax immaculate. Primaries with the transverse lines 
variably distinet, but always traceable, consisting of a dark and a 
pale line, of which the pale Ime only is usually distinct. Basal line fre- 
quently wanting and always inconspicuous. ‘Transverse anterior line 
outwardly oblique, doubly toothed in the costal region, and outwardly 
curvedin the interspaces below; the dusky lineis the outer. Transverse 
posterior line with the dark line inwardly, in general course slightly 
outcurved, quite strongly denticulate, the outward teeth on the veins. 
The subterminal line is pale, irregularly sinuate and dentate. There is 
a lunate black terminal line and a yellowish shade line at the base of 
the fringes. The median shade line is obscurely marked in a few 
specimens; but as a rule is obsolete. The orbicular is reduced to a 
yellowish dot and is quite frequently entirely wanting. The reniform 
is usually marked only as a yellowish lunule, sometimes accompanied by 
a blackish mark through its center or outer margin. ‘The secondaries 
have a yellowish tinge, most marked basally and they darken out- 
wardly, marked by alternate dusky and paler bands and lines, some- 
times aimost obsolete, sometimes quite well marked, but never distinctly 
dentate. Beneath, the wings are smoky, varying to dull powdery 
luteous with a median and extra-median dusky, followed by pale lines. 
30th wings with a discal lunule always rather prominent on the 
secondaries, frequently quite reduced and sometimes obsolete on the 
primaries. é 

Expanse of wings, 25 to 40 mm,=1 to 1.60 inches. 

Haprrat.—United States generally; northward to Nova Scotia, and 
found from midsummer to autumn. in Texas, dates are May and 
October, and a second brood is indicated. 

The variation in this species is primarily in size and in the ground 
color, which in pale specimens results in giving prominence to the dark 
lines, while in the dark specimens the pale lines become most evident. 
A large, pale form, in which the lines become diffuse, is found on the 
Pacifie Coast, and this is my variety occidentalis, which I have not seen 
from the East. 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITB. 19 


The antenne in both sexes are furnished with lateral bristles, and 
in both there is a dense clothing of scales, which gives the member a 
decidedly thickened appearance. Inthe‘nale the jointsareshortand the 
bristles are set in very close to the base—so close, indeed, that they appear 
to arise from the suture. Above the point at which these lateral bristles 
are inserted are small, teat-like processes, which are furnished with a 
tuft of bristly hair, and other similar, though shorter, hairs are on the 
upper surface of each joint, arising from small, tubercle-like processes. 
Among these processes are small pittings without hair, which are prob- 
ably sensory in character. In the female the antennal joints are longer, 
more cylindrical, aud the lateral bristles are less prominent, set mto 
distinct pits on the sides, though rather close to the base, and they 
lack the bristly tubercles entirely. The harpes of the male are quite 
simple, the upper angle produced into a pointed process, whue inferiorly 
and toward the base is a somewhat chitinous process with a knob-like 
tip, which is furnished with short, stiff spines and han. 


Epizeuxis denticulalis, Harvey 
1875. Harvey, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sei., IT, 283, Pseudaglossa. 

Ground color a pale, Somewhat yellowish, gray. with black powderings; 
abdomen and secondaries paler, the former with the edges of the seg: 
ments pale ringed, the latter more thinly sealed. Primaries with all 
the lines distinct. Basal line very close to the root of the wing, and not 
prominent; dusky. Transverse anterior line nearly upright, dark sepia 
brown, preceded by an indefined line only a little paler than the ground 
color, indented on the veins and irregularly outeurved in the inter- 
spaces, Transverse posterior line irregular, strongly denticulated, as a 
whole nearly parallel with the outer margin, dark brown, followed by 
an indefinite, slightly paler shade. An obvious median shade line, 
smoky brown in color, crosses the median space over the reniform, and 
below that spot darkens its outer portion to theinner margin. Subter- 
minal line pale, strongly and irregularly dentate, variably distinet, pre- 
ceded by a variably distinet dusky shade, which is most marked on the 
costa. A series of dusky terminal lunules, beyond which the pale 
fringes are cut with brown. The orbicular is wanting, or traceable only 
as a paler dot. Reniform a paler, yellowish lunule, outwardly defined 
by a dark crescent. The secondaries are crossed by three variably dis- 
tinct dusky bands, the two outer of which are more or less dentate. 
The bands are not sharply marked except at their outer margin, thin- 
ning out toward base in each case. A distinet blackish terminal line. 
Beneath, the primaries are dusky, and there is a more or less evident 
reproduction of the transverse posterior and subterminal lines of the 
upper side. The secondaries are more luteous, and iave two distinet, 
brown, even extra median, lines and a blackish marginal line. Both 
wings have a discal lunwle, that of the primaries less distinet and some 
times obsolete, 


20 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


Expanse of wings, 25 to 3|0mm=1 to 1.20 inches. 

Hapirat.—New York to Texas; District of Columbia in July and 
August. a 

This species is by no means so common as the preceding, and is not 
generally distinguished from it. It is sometimes ranged as a pale form 
ot HL. lubricalis, or more frequently a pale form of that species is labeled 
Ei. denticulalis. The present species is always recognizable by the 
obvious median shade line and the dusky patch in the outer inferior 
angle of the median space. The rather prominent pale rigs to the 
margin of the abdominal segments are also Somewhat distinetive. From 
the specimens I have seen the species varies much less im size and in 
ground color than /. lubricalis, and is a very well-defined one. 

Untortunately, I failed to find among the material before me any 
female specimens, hence can not speak of the antennal characters of 
that sex. The male antennie resemble quite strongly those of H. lubri- 
ealis; but all the features are more intensified: the joints are broader, 
the scales more dense, the lateral bristles are longer and more stout, 
the tuberculate processes bearing hair, are more prominent and the 
hairy tufts are more conspicuous, and, finally, the tubercles giving rise 
to separate hairs are much more numerous. Examined with a hand 
lens, the impression is that the member is much more bushy than in the 
preceding species. In the primary sexual characters there is little dif- 
fering from the preceding. The type of the harpe is exactly the same, 
and only the proportion of the parts differ slightly. In wing form this 
species is quite considerably different from . lubriealis, the primaries 
being distinctly more trigonate, proportionately shorter and broader, 
making the outline quite markedly different. 


Bpizeuxis rotundalis, Walker. 


1865. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XXXIV, 1144, Hormisa. 
borealis, Smith. 

1884. Smith, Bull. BkIn. Entomological Soc., VII, 5, Lelia. 

1893.. Smith, Bull.,U. 8. Nat. Mus., 44, 378, pr. syn. 
forbesii, French. 

1894. French, Bull. Ill. State Lab. Nat. Hist., 1V, 9, Pseudaglossa. 

Head, thorax, and primaries blackish, smoky, glistening; second- 
aries and abdomen paler, more thinly sealed. Primaries almost immace- 
ulate, only the most vague traces of the ordinary lines being observable 
in most specimens. Sometimes, however, all of them are traceable or 
at least feebly indicated by pale scales, though more often they are not 
traceable in any way, and we have a uniform smoky-brown surface 
delightfully easy to describe. The secondaries are also as arule nearly 
immaculate, though some traces of the usual median and extra-median 
dusky brands may be discovered, and in some cases these are fairly 
well marked. Beneath, the wings vary from quite pale whitish gray 
to smoky, and the usual transverse lines are sometimes well marked, 
especially on the secondaries. The maculation is most evident when 
the ground is lightest and then also a discal spot is usually present. 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MO'THS—SMITH. ?1 


Expanse of wings, 17 to 20 mm. — 0.68 to 0.80 inch, 

HapirTatT.—Canada to Virginia, westward to the foothills; June and 
July. 

This is the smallest of the species in average expanse, and is still 
shorter and rounder winged than F. denticulalis, It 1s quite easily recog 
nizable by its almost immaculate wings and is by no means uncommon 
locally. It seems more frequent in northern localities, but I have 
received it from Virginia, and westward it oceurs in lowa and Nebraska. 
I have not had it from Colorado or any point in the Sonoran faunal 
region. 

The antenn are well developed in both sexes. In the male the joints 
are well marked and short, the lateral bristles are long and stout and 
are set in deep pits. Near to the insertion of these lateral bristles is 
a rather large process set with hair about the tip, and near the tip 
is another similar process also clothed in the same way, while other 
smaller tubercles and pits give rise to single hairs. This gives the 
joints a much greater number of bristles and therefore a more brushy 
or brush-like appearance under a hand lens than any of the other 
species thus far described. The antennie of the female are furnished 
only with weak lateral bristles, much shorter than those of the male, 
and the joints are without hairy processes. The male sexual char- 
acters are of the same type as in JF. lubricalis, but differ in that 
the superior margin of the harpe is not drawn out and chitinized, 
while the process from the inferior margin is much longer and more 
prominent. 

The Pseudaglossa forbessii, French, is based upon specimens in which 
the maculation is quite well defined, and all of it traceable, resembling 
thus, somewhat, a small /. lubricalis, except in wing form. To the 
kindness of Prof. S. A. Forbes I owe an opportunity to examine one of 
the types, which enables me to make the reference definitely. A com- 
parison of the figures given on Plate I will at once show the relation- 
ship of the forms. 


Epizeuxis scobialis, Grote. 
1880. Grote, North American Entomologist, I, 95, Pseudaglossa. 


Ground color smoky black without luster; secondaries scarcely 
paler; abdomen narrowly white banded at the edges of the segments. 
Primaries with all the lines present, narrow, white, and broken, accom. 
panied, however, by black lnes which are traceable on close examina- 
tion. Basal line reduced to a slender white line. Transverse anterior 
line distinct, though usually broken and sometimes reduced to a series 
of white scales; upright as a whole, but somewhat irregularly out- 
curved in the interspaces. Transverse posterior line distinctly marked 
on-the costa by a triangular white pateh, but beyond that reduced to 
a broken track of white scales in most instances; but if is sometimes 
distinet though narrow; in course it 1s as in the preceding species 


22 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


and is irregularly dentate. Subterminal line always distinct, narrow, 
white, irregularly sinuate and dentate, best marked in the costal region. 
A series of somewhat obscure terminal spots, interrupted by more 
prominent white dots. The orbicular is distinct as a white dot in all 
the specimens I have seen and the reniform as a narrow upright white 
streak which is scarcely a lunule or crescent. Secondaries with median 
and extra-median narrow denticulated white lines, which are variably 
distinct; in some specimens a black discal spot is visible. Beneath, 
black and white powdered, primaries repeating the subterminal and 
transverse posterior lines, while the secondaries reproduce the macula- 
tion of the upper side. Both wings have a black discal spot. 

Expanse of wings, 22 to 25 mm.—0.88 to 1 inch. 

Haprrat.—Eastern, Middle, and Central States. New York in 
June and July. . 

This is one of the smaller species, and most nearly resembles LH. lubri- 
calis in wing form; seeming, indeed, only a somewhat further step in 
the depth of the ground color, and replacing by white the sordid yel- 
lowish of the pale lines. This contrast, the narrow, usually broken 
white lines on almost dull-black ground, as well as the white-ringed 
abdomen, makes this species easy of recognition. The sexual pieces, 
so far as they have been examined, resemble Z. lubricalis quite closely ; 
but I have not had a male free for dissection. The species is not com- 
mon and is most usually taken at night in my experience. 

The antenne differ quite obviously from those of H#. lubricalis in both 
sexes. In the male the joints are less marked, the lateral bristles are 
feeble, not as well developed, indeed, as in the female of its ally, and 
there are no piliferous processes or tubercles. A comparatively few 
hairs rise from small punctures, but they are scant in number and feeble. 
In the female the lateral bristles are yet further reduced and are hardly 
more than stout hairs, and we have, thus, an actual and marked strue- 
tural character supplementing those drawn from maculation. 


Epizeuxis laurentii, Smith. 


1893. Smith, Entomological News, 1V, 83, Epizeuxis. 

Ground color of head, thorax, and primaries powdery blackish over 
dirty whitish, the latter color visible in the markings. The usual — 
transverse lines are rather prominently defined by the whitish color, 
but the accompanying black lines are in all cases traceable. Basal line 
distinetly marked. Transverse anterior line upright, its course irregu- 
lar, the most prominent modification consisting of a squared outward 
bend in the submedian interspace. Transverse posterior line strongly 
denticulated, its course on the whole a somewhat even and not very 
marked outeurve. Subterminal line pale, prominent, irregularly sinu- 
ate and dentate, a broken, black terminal line, beyond which is a very 
narrow pale line at the base of the fringes, which are blackish and pale 
tipped, cut with narrow pale streaks opposite the vems. There is an 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 20 


obvious, somewhat diffuse and nearly upright, black median shade 
lime. The orbicular is pale, punctiform. The reniform is pale, some- 
what indefinite and variable in size, with a more or less complete cen- 
tral lunule, sometimes reduced to a mere point in the inferior portion 
of the spot. Secondaries gray, with a blackish overlay, forming a dark 
-subbasal band and distinct median and extra median dentate pale 
lines. There is an interrupted black terminal line and the fringes have 
a central dark shading. Abdomen blackish, the edges of the segments 
annulate with whitish. Beneath powdery, the primaries blackish out- 
wardly, with the transverse posterior and subterminal lines of the 
upper side somewhat indefinitely reproduced; secondaries gray, the 
markings of the upper side less distinctly duplicated, and with a very 
distinet black diseal lunule. 

Hxpanse of wings, 25 to 26 nm.=0.92 to 1.04 inches. 

Hasrrat.—Mitchell County, N. C.; in July. 

This species is most nearly allied to #. scobialis, agreeing with it in 
the dark color and the banded abdomen. It differs in the wider wings, 
powdery clothing of both wings, and the pale secondaries, agreeing 
in these characters with the following species. On the other hand, the 
palpi are entirely like those of HE. scobialis, and this species it also 
resembles most nearly in antennal structure. In both sexes the 
antenne are quite heavily sealed, the scales somewhat uplifted. In 
the male each joint is furnished witha single pair of lateral bristles, 
which are reduced to bristle-like hair in the female, so the joints may 
be almost said to be simple. 

This is a curiously intermediate form, perhaps more nearly related 
to the Pseudaglossa series, but in clothing and ornamentation more 
allied to Hpizeuris. 

Epizeuxis americalis, Guenée. 
1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 78, pl. 6, fig. 5, Helia. 
1859, Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 134, Lpizeusis. 
1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., LV, 307, Epizeuxis. 
1883. Riley, Canadian Entomologist, XV, 171, larva. 
scriptipennis, Walker. 
1858. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XV, 1765, Microphysa. 
1868. Grote and Robinson, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., I, 79, pr. syn. 
1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 307, pr. syn. 

Ground color of head, thorax, and primaries pale, bluish ash gray, 
more or less black powdered. Head and thorax not maculate.  Pri- 
maries with the outer part of median space yellowish brown, varying 
in distinctness, and beyond this the wing is more or less suffused with 
sordid yellowish brown, which, as a rule, does not extend to the costa. 
All the transverse lines distinet. Basal line marked on the costa only 
by a blackish spot. Transverse anterior line upright, irregularly out- 
curved between the veins, black, preceded by a white line, which 1s 
raviably distinet and marked outwardly on the costa by a distinet 
trigonate black patch. Transverse posterior line black, followed by a 


24 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


white line, and preceded on the costa by a distinct black or brown blotch, 
Which usually extends to the inception of the median line. In its course 
it is acutely dentated on the veins, outwardly oblique from costa to 
vein 4, thence incurved to the inner margin. Subterminal line promi- 
nent, white, preceded by a distinet black shade much broader toward 
the costa and irregularly sinuate and dentate. The median Jine is dis- 
tinet, somewhat diffuse, nearly upright, a little irregular in the upper 
half of its course. A black terminal line, which broadens out supe- 
riorly, forming a somewhat prominent black shading. Fringes sordid 
yellowish, cut with smoky brown. The orbicular is obsolete or small, 
marked by a diftuse yellowish spot, which is never defined. Reniform 
not defined, always evident, rather large, consisting of a yellow :unule, 
inwardly marked by the median lueand outwardly merged into a rusty 
brownish shade, which extends to the transverse posterior line. See- 
ondaries smoky brown, sometimes paler, often witha yellowish suf- 
fusion, crossed by three blackish lines. The tirst of these is within the 
middle, and iseven, not shaded. ‘The second is median, somewhat bent 
at the middle of its course, and followed by a yellow shading. The third 
is submarginal, quite strongly bent about one-third from the costa, and 
also followed by a yellow shade. A distinet, continuous, black terminal 
line, beyond which the dusky fringes are cut with yellow. The abdomen 
is gray, the edges of the segments yellowish white, giving a somewhat 
obscurely banded appearance. Beneath, the wings are dull luteous, 
with black and white powderings, crossed by three dusky lines, of 
which the second and third are followed by a pale shade. <A black 
terminal line. Secondaries with a linear, black discal mark. 

Expapse of wings, 20 to 27 mm.=60.80 to 1.10 inches. 

Haprrar.—Canada, southward to Florida to Texas; westward tothe 
Rocky Mountains; New Mexico. In its northern range it oceurs. from 
July to September; in Texas to November. 

A very common and not very variable species, always distinguished 
by the pale whitish or bluish gray color and the contrasting transverse 
lines, which are emphasized on the costa by distinet black or blackish 
blotches or marks. The dilation of the upper part of the terminal line 
into a broad shade is also peculiar to the species, and is a very excel- 
lent distinctive character. The antenne in the male are furnished 
with long, stout lateral bristles, longest at basal third and very gradu- 
ally diminshing toward the tip, set in near the base of each side of 
each joint. Below this lateral bristle is a short process, inconspicuous 
toward base, becoming a short pectination near the middle, and again 
decreasing toward the tip; becoming first a mere tubercle and then’ 
disappearing altogether. This process is furnished with a large sensory 
bristle at the tip, and is set with smaller hairs at the sides and base. 
On the outer side of each joint is another conical elevation or tubercle, 
a little beyond the middle of each joint, and this also gives rise to tufts 
of sensory hairs. This tubercle disappears gradually toward the tip 


a 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 25 


as the joints elongate. The underside of all the joints are pitted, most 
prominently so toward the middle. In the female the joints are fur- 
nished with short lateral bristles, arising very close to the base, and 
there are no lateral tubercles. The sensory pittings, however, are even 
more prominent than in the male, and the surface on the upper side is 
imbricated in appearance. The harpes of the male are quite simple, 
nearly squarely cut off at tip, and there is a broad corneous, process 
near base which is obtusely produced superiorly. Altogether the spe- 
cies is a well-marked one. 
Epizeuxis majoralis, new species. 

General ground color dull smoky fuscous, with luteous and black 
powderings. Head and collar sometimes marked with fuscous.  Pri- 
maries with the costal region whitish gray, with the inception of the 
ordinary lines marked by dusky patches, less distinct than in £, 
americaiis. Ordinary lines all defined, though hardly distinct except 
on costa. Basal line obscure, marked by white scales. Transverse 
anterior line nearly upright, unevenly outecurved in the interspaces, 
blackish, outwardly marked by a costal dusky spot, inwardly by a 
paler shade, becoming white on the costa. Transverse posterior line 
irregularly and strongly dentate as a whole, with a tolerably even out- 
curve; incurved in the submedian interspace, somewhat dilated on the 
costa and followed by a pale shade, which is white on the costa, else 
yellowish, except near the inner margin, where white powderings some- 
times obtain. Subterminal line irregularly dentate and angulate, 
white in the costal region, where it is preceded by a distinct, broad 
black shade. becoming yellowish and sometimes almost lost toward the 
inner margin. <A narrow, even, or only slightly lunate, terminal black 
line. Fringes smoky, cut with Inteous over the interspaces. The 
inedian shade is nearly upright, vague, diffuse, sometimes hardly trace- 
able. The ordinary spots are marked as indefinite luteous blotches, 
and sometimes a luteous shade is apparent through the median cell. 
Secondaries paler, more powdery than the primaries, with three trans- 
verse lines, of which the outer is most evident, whitish; and sharply 
dentate. An even, dusky terminal line. Beneath whitish, powdery, 
with three confused mdefinite transverse lines and a discal spot on all 


wings. 
Expanse of wings, 29 to 34 mm. — 1.20 to 1.57 inches. 
HaAprrat.—New York (Ithaca); Ohio (Columbus); Illinois (CarSon- 
dale), 


I have six specimens of this species before me, all of them females. 
The species is curiously intermediate in maculation between /£. amula 
and FE. americalis, but is larger than either, and differs from both in the 
long palpi, which considerably exceed the vertex, while they are shorter 
than in the Pseudaglossa series. In the shape of the primaries it more 
nearly resembles /. emula in the rounded apex and outer margin than 
E. americalis, in which the apex is rectangular and somewhat well 
defined. 


26 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


{tis more than probable that specimens of this species are in other 
collections mixed with either H. emula or HL. americalis, but the species 
seems more rare than either. Itis represented in the National Museum 
collections by two poor specimens, without locality, marked July, and 
which were found with emula. 


Epizeuxis emula, Hiibner. 
1815. Hiibner, Exotische Schmetterlinge, III, 1, G. a., Idiadolosa. 
1816. Hiibner, Verzeichniss, 546, Hpizeuxis. 
1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 78, Helia emulalis. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 134, Lpizeuvis. 
1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 307, Epizeuris. 
mollifera, Walker. 
1858. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XV, 1765, Wicrophysa. 
1868. Grote and Robinson Trans. Am. Entemological Soe., Il, 79, Epizeuwris. 
1874. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., I, 47. pr. syn. 
herminioides, Walker. 
1860. Walker, Can. Nat. and Geol., V, 259, Homoptera. 
1865. Bethune, Canadian Journal, X, 258, Homoptera. 
1877. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, IX, 28, Lpizeuris. 
1893. Smith, Bull. 44, U. S. Nat. Mus., 379, pr. syn. 
effusalis, Walker. 
1860. Walker, Can. Nat. and Geol., V, 264, Hormisa. 
1877. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, IX, 29, pr. syn. 
concisa, Walker. 
1860. Walker, Can. Nat. and Geol., V, 265, Hormisa. 
1877. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, IX, 29, pr. syn. 
Ground color, a dull smoky gray over luteous; powdery. Head and 
thorax uniform; immaculate. Primaries uniformly colored, without 
contrasting shades; the transverse maculation distinet, but not eon- 
trasting or prominent, and not marked by costal spots or blotches. 
Basal line reduced to a black mark on the median vein and sometimes 
a small costal spot. Transverse anterior line nearly upright, with three 
variably marked outcurves in the interspaces; single, black. Trans- 
verse posterior line black, denticulate, as a whole outcurved, somewhat 
retracted in the submedian interspace, followed by a yellowish shade 
which, as a rule, is marked on the costa, but is rarely conspicuous 
elsewhere in its course. Subterminal line pale, sinuate and irregularly 
angulate or dentate, usually defined on both sides by a darker shade; 
but this may be confined to a preceding shade, and: may be entirely 
absent. Terminal line black, broken into lunules, followed by a pale 
or yellow line at the base of the usually immaculate fringes. The median 
shade is blackish, nearly upright, very variably marked and sometimes 
quite prominent. Orbicular reduced to a small yellow dot as a rule. 
teniform yellow, large, somewhat defined, interiorly marked by the 
median shade, and often with two small black dots marking the upper 
and lower margins, forming the only prominent feature in the wing 
maculation, Secondaries much paler, more grayish, and appearing 
more thinly scaled; powdery, crossed by three transverse lines, of 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. ot 


which the outer is pale and slightly dentate. A broken, black terminal 
line, followed by a yellow line at the base of the fringes. Beneath, 
powdery, the wings crossed by three very variably distinct transverse 
lines, of which the outer is more or less denticulate. 

Expanse of wings, 19 to 28 mm. = 0.75 to 1.12 inches. 

Haprrat.—Eastof the Rocky Mountains: northern and eastern range, 
July to September; south and southwest, March to November; Colo 
rado in September. 

This is a common species, with quite a range of variation in size, and 
a considerable variation in the distinctness of maculation. The greatest 
contrast is shown in the reniform spot, which, while normally yellow, 
is sometimes invaded by the median shade, and becomes occasionally 
black and quite strongly marked, differing promineutly from the more 
usual form. Sometimes forms occur in which all contrast is lost and 
they are then almost uniformly gray and powdery. The antennie of the 
male have the usual long lateral bristles, and below these a well-marked 
pectination or process of moderate length, considerably exceeding 
those of E. americalis, but, like them, clothed with tufts of sensory hair. 
There are no supplementary lateral tubercles as in the allied species, 
and the pits on the underside of the joints are less numerous. In the 
female the antennie have the usual slender lateral bristle and the under- 
side of the joints are marked with sensory pittings. The scaly mark- 
ings so distinct in H. americalis are here barely traceable. The sexual 
characters of the male are well marked. The harpes are narrowed at 
the middle and drawn out, and the tip is rather irregularly rounded. 
The claspers arise from a stout base and are attached to the harpes to 
the middle, whence they are separate as stout, slightly curved, cylin- 
drical, and pointed prongs. The species thus differs throughout from F. 
americalis, of which I was at one time inclined to consider it a variety, 
deeming the form now separated as HF. majoralis to be an intermediate 
type, which indeed it is, so far as maculation alone is concerned. 


Genus ZANCLOGNATHA, Lederer. 
1857. Lederer, Noctuinen, Europas, 211. 
Pityolita, Grote. 
1873. Grote, Bull. buff. Soc. Nat. Sei., I, 39. 
Cleptomita, Grote. 
1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 301. 
Megachyta, Grote. 
1878. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soe., IV, 306. 
Eyes naked, large, globose. Front smooth, in perfect examples with 
a pointed tuft between the antennie; but this is a variable and often 
defective feature. Tongue long and stout. Antenne moderate in 
length, arising from the vertex, close to the compound eye, the basal 
joint enlarged, much stouter than the remainder of the stalk; but the 
diiation much less marked in the female. In the male the antennie are 
furnished with lateral bristles on each joint, and at about one-third 


28 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


from base there is a thickening of the stem, principally caused by < 
dense clothing of scales outwardly, marking a more or less evident 
bend, and beyond this are two or three joints, each of which has also 
a Stout, claw-like process on the inner side. ‘Two is the usual number, 
and three the exception. In the female the antenne are simple or 
sealed, or with small lateral bristles, and as no two species are quite 
alike in this particular this feature will be separately deseribed for 
each. The palpi are very long, curving upward, far exceeding the 
vertex, the second joint much the longest, the vestiture quite closely 
appressed or even smoothly sealed, never with upright or blade-like 
upper edge; quite markedly sickle-shaped. Ocelli distinct, close to the 
compound eye, and quite well removed from the base of the antenne. 
The body is slight compared to the wings, the thorax proportionately 
sinall, untufted, the abdomen eylindrical, subequal, untufted, reaching 
to or exceeding the anal angle of secondaries. Legs long, slender, 
closely scaled, the posterior much the longest and in these the tibice 
are stouter than elsewhere. There is no armature save the usual spurs 
of,the middle and hind tibiz, and these are very long and somewhat 
unequal, the inner spurs considerably the best developed. 

In the males the fore legs are considerably modified and curiousiy 
tufted, coxa, femur and tibia becoming greatly changed to accommo. 
date these abnormal appendages. As they vary in the species and 
have been already generally characterized they will be separately 
deseribed under the specific headings. 

The wings are large, the primaries trigonate, with rectangular or 
obtuse apices and very evenly and not greatly curved outer margins, 
the inner margin not much shorter than the costa. The venation is 
normal; but varies somewhat in the arrangement of the veins arising 
from,the accessory cell; 10 being sometimes from the middle of the 
upper margin, sometimes from the end, and sometimes even from a 
stalk with 8, a short distance beyond it. 

Under the above definition are included the species of Pityolita, 
Cleptomita, and Megachyta, as well as those usually referred to Zanclog- 
natha, because IL have found it impossible to find valid characters for 
their separation. Mr. Grote never attempted to distinguish the genera 
except in the most indefinite way, scarcely doing more than to designate 
the type, and the difference in superficial appearance has kept them 
apart since. 

In the species referred to Megachyta, the median lines are thickened 
at their inception on the costa, forming more or less prominent spots, 
and this gives the species a characteristic appearance, which almost 
entirely vanishes in Z. inconspicualis. There is also a seemmeg differ- 
ence in wing form, which proves elusive on careful examination, and 
leaves me without a reasonable basis for the genus. 

Cleptomita has nothing at all to support it save its distinetive macu- 
lation, and even this is close in type to that of Z. laevigata. The type 


_A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 29 


and only specimen ever seen by me is imperfectly set and is misleading 
in the unpression it gives of the wing form and general habitus. This 
does not seem to differ in the least from Zanclognatha, while 10 strue- 
tural character is apparent to me on close examination. 

Pityolita has slightly more determinate apices of the primaries, 
euhanced by a somewhat narrower base, making them a little more 
evenly trigonate than in the normal type; but, unfortunately, this differ 
ence is incoustant and becomes greatly lessened in some large females, 
making it thus an unsafe basis of division. The species fits very neatly 
among the typical species of the genus. 

The species formerly referred to Megachyta forma fairly well-marked 
division of the genus, recognizable by the costal enlargement of the 
ordinary spots which, even when least marked, is in quite strong con 
trast to the even threadlike lines of all the other species save Z. mini- 
malis, Which somewhat resembles Z. inconspicualis in this particular, 
but is much larger and, in other respects, quite well separated. 

Z. lituralis is at once separable from all other species by a series of 
three distinct brown costal spots, of which the outer is apical and fol- 
lows the subterminal line. It is also the largest of this series and in 
ail respects the best marked as well as the most common. 

Z. theralis, Walker, or Z. deceptricalis, Grote, is a decidedly smaller 
eray species, in which the costal spots on the median lines are black 
and quite well marked; but the third spot is much less defined, 1s not 
apical, and precedes the subterminal line, continuing for a greater or 
less distance to emphasize this line, and often no more marked on the 
costa than onthe hind margin. In this species the transverse posterior 
line makes a very abrupt outward bend below the costal spot, and the 
dine runs in close proximity to the subterminal line for the balance of 
its course. 

Z. minoralis is also gray, but yet smaller than the preceding, trom 
v hich it also differs by the broad, somewhat diffuse median lines, which 
are scarcely enlarged on the costa, the transverse posterior regularly 
outecurved, and by the absence of any dark shade to the subterminal 
line. 

Z. inconspicualis is scarcely larger than the preceding, with much 
the same markings; but it is dull, smoky-brown in color, and the 
median lines are narrow, scarcely enlarged on the costa. 

It is possible that there may be a closer relation between the last- 
mentioned two species than seems probable at present. IL have only 
two males of Z. minoralis, and but three females of Z. inconspicualis, 
the latter not showing any appreciable variation; but the markings 
are apparently identical, and the strong difference in ground color with 
the relative distinctness of the median lines may possibly come within 
the range of variation in this series. 

Of all the other species referable to this genus, none except 7. mini- 
malis shows any trace of any costal enlargement of the median lines, 





30 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM: 


and here the dilation is exceedingly slight and not liable to cause con- 
fusion. 

Z. laevigata and 4. punctiformis are peculiar in this series by the 
character of the subterminal line, which is sinuate, and this character 
will serve to distinguish the former through all its protean changes of 
color. Only one other of the Deltoid series approaches this in varia- 
bility—Renia discoloralis—and that is, of course, impossible to con- 
fuse with either of the above. In ground color Z. levigata may vary 
from carneous gray to almost black, and the color may be even or 
powdery; the primaries may have the median space contrastingly red, 
or brown, or yellowish, or gray; or this space may be dark, while all 
else is contrastingly paler. A good series of this species is in itself a 
lesson in insect variation, and yet with all this change in color there is 
practically no variation in the markings, i. e., the course of the ordinary 
lines. It is probable that under the term Z. obsoleta I have redeseribed 
an almost immaculate form of this species. 

Z. punctiformis, which at first sight resembles 7. laevigata quite 
strongly, has the transverse anterior line outeurved, while in its ally it 
is rigid, and the subterminal line is pale and somewhat Iunulate, each 
lunule preceded by a black spot, which is inwardly diffuse. 

Z. atrilineella is also distinctive in appearance, and is allied to Z. levi- 
gata, though much smaller, and probably abundantly distinet. It is 
characterized by the prominent black median lines, the inner quite 
diffuse, and by the black shade preceding the subterminal line. 
Unfortunately a single imperfect specimen only is known, and there 
is no information as to whether we have a normal form, or one that is an 
extreme variation. I deem it not unlikely that Z. laevigata may some- 
times take on a similar appearance; but do not mean to suggest any 
specific relation between the two. 

In all the following species the subterminal line is even and straight; 
usually it is pale, and in many instances preceded by a dusky shade. 

Z. pedipilalis is a luteous gray form and differs from all its neighbors 
in that the subterminal line is dusky and only occasionally followed by 
a vague paler line. It is also abbreviated below the apex and does not 
reach the costa, terminating in such a way as to make it appear that 
its continuation would reach the extreme tip of the wing, where a 
dusky dot intensifies this impression. The transverse posterior line is 
usually quite distinetly angulated over the cell, and the transverse 
anterior line is even, not denticulated. The peculiar course of the 
subterminal line adds to the impression that the fore wing is more 
pointed than is really the case. 

Z. cruralis is allied to Z. pedipilalis, but is brown, and the subtermi- 
nal line is pale, preceded by a distinet dark shade, reaching the costa 
without break. The transverse anterior line is even, and the trans- 
verse posterior line less angulated over the cell; but it has a more dis- 
tinct incurve in the submedian interspace, 


oe 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. oe 


Z. obscuripennis is very close to Z. cruralis, but it is darker and more 
obscurely marked. The transverse posterior line is similar in general 
course, but is much less evident and is irregular, somewhat denticulate, 
not even. These characters are readily noted and the nature of the 
transverse posterior line is usually decisive of the species. 

Z. protumnosalis, better known as Z. minimatlis, is another dark spe- 
cies much like Z. obscuripennis at first sight; but it differs in the irregu- 
lar transverse anterior line, and the yet more denticulated transverse 
posterior line. In the character of the transverse anterior line this 
species differs from both Z. cruralis and Z, obscuripennis, but agrees 
with Z. marecidilinea and Z. ochreipennis, from which it differs by its 
smoky or blackish color. 

Z. marcidilinea and Z. ochreipennis are yellowish or luteous forms and 
are very closely allied. Superficially, Z. marcidilinea is smoother, more 
evenly colored, and the median lines are less irregular; while in Z. 
ochreipennis the vestiture appears rough and powdery, there is a dis- 
tinet tendency to a darkening of the outer part of the wing, and the 
median lines are more denticulated, sometimes, in the transverse poste- 
rior, almost crenulated. 


ANALYSES OF THE SPECIES OF ZANCLOGNATHA. 


1. Median lines dilated on the costa, forming more or less prominent triangular 
SOUS aeaeeee es tee pas arnt Se ee ale ene es ain ees Seems sine 2, 
Meathanlinesmmitormpy not dilate. om the: costa.-=-.-.--25...---.-.2:.:-.--- 4, 

2, Primaries with a brown or black patch at apex, following the subterminal 


line; costal patches at inception of median lines prominent; ground 


LOLOIMGeOUS OL MTO WIS Ne soe eae ee eae aoe eee LITURALIS. 
Primaries without a dark apical spot; subterminal line simple or preceded by 

BAGUSia\e OL Dlaclaslmshadessos cc s2 Sass -see eee fe noes aes Sane Je 
3. Ashen gray; the median lines slender, starting from obvious costal spots; 
transverse posterior line with an abrupt outward bend below the costa, 

close to and usually almost parallel with subterminal line .......THERALIS. 


Ashen’gray; the median lines broad, somewhat diffuse, scarcely enlarged to 
form costal spots; transverse posterior line evenly outcurved, more 


remote sronmesubterminal line, simuites. 2s. -S2: 5.45. onc oe MINORALIS. 
Duil smoky gray or fuscous; median lines narrow, slightly enlarged at their 
inception; transverse posterior line sinuate.....-...---- INCONSPICUALIS. 


4. Subterminal line sinuate; all the maculation distinet. 
Transverse anterior line rigid or with a shght inward bend; subterminal 
linemot marked biysprecedine SOUS «ss. sass oe aa oe oe L.EVIGATA. 
Transverse anterior line evenly outcuryved; subterminal line lnnulate as 
well as sinuate, preceded by a series of black spots, which are inwardly 


CUI © eaten ote eae ote eek ah atm eee ee RP ee PUL PUNCTIFORMIS, 
SUVUIMIMAlhNe rigid.Ormearly: so sspalewe -S-- sees) 2s SS ceo. 2-2 5. 

5. Transverse lines broad, diffuse, contrasting; a black shade preceding the sub- 
GTI UWL Ore e Sacer sehen We eye oY Ns Oo ATRILINERLLA, 
Transverse lines slender. narrow, not contrasting. _.......--...----.---.---- 6. 

6. Transverse anterior line even, not denticulate or marked on the veins, save 
that there may be an angulation over the costa.......--.--.-..----- 1: 

Transverse anterior line slender, irregular, dentate or outcurved in the inter- 
BM ACES Petal eears etka Tash eee sels eet. seals tl cada we seas Vea dsWiseeenee 9. 


32 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


. 


~] 


. Transverse posterior line even, not denticulate on the veims......-...--..--. 8. 
Transverse posterior line irregular, slightly denticulated; ground color dark 
smoky; median lines obscure; subterminal line more contrasting ---. 


OBSCURIPENNIS. 
8. Color pale luteous; transverse posterior line quite acutely angulated over 


the ‘cell cos Fe cae TR Sane Bee ae ee ee ene ee ee PEDIPILALIS. 

Color darker, yellowish brown; transverse posterior line strongly bisinuate, 
outcurved but hardly angulated over the cell. -...---.-:..-.-- CRURALIS. 
9. Color yellowish to purply brown or smoky; smaller-....--.--.. PROTUMNUSALIS. 


Larger; color smoothly luteous, scareely powdery; lines indistinct or lost; 
subterminal line usually contrasting, pale, distinct, not preceded by 
aidusky:shadeiw: Si. 422.2 aa ee ee eee MARCIDILINEA. 

Color Inteous to ocherous, powdery; lines well marked; usually a dusky 
shading over the subterminal line and sometimes a distinct preceding 
dark dime '. 2.2. -3 sivaced Soiec coo ese one Sale Se aero eee eee ee © CHT EIIE LINENS 


Zanclognatha lituralis, Hiibner. 


1818. Hiibner, Zutraege, I, 9, tig. 19,20, Hpizeuris. 
1816. Hiibner, Verzeichniss, 546, Hpisewris. 
1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 79, Helia. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 134, Hpizeuris. 
1872. Zeller, Verh. k. k. Zool. Bot. Ges., XXII, 473, Zancloquatha. 
1875. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 306, Megachyta. 

Ground color a rather even luteous brown, varying in shade to more 
luteous or more reddish, minutely powdery. Head and thorax concol- 
orous. Primaries with the ordinary lines marked by brown, blackish, 
or black, quite prominent costal spots, but indefinite or obsolete below 
that point. Basal line marked only on costa by a single black line. 
Transyerse anterior line prominently marked on the costa, but below 
that point traceable only by a few black scales and a small spot on the 
median vein, which is sometimes wanting. Transverse posterior line 
marked by a series of venular dots, accompanied by a vague, indefinite, 
paler shade. Subterminal line most prominently marked, pale, its 
course nearly straight; but the line itself is crenulated, the curves out- 
ward and usually filled inwardly by black dots, which are variably dis- 
tinct, sometimes forming a quite obvious shade and occasionally disap- 
pearing altogether.” A broken black terminal line, oceasionally changing 
to lunules and sometimes almost disappearing. The apex is marked 
by an oval brown or black costal pateh. Orbicular absent. Reniform 
amore or less prominent black lunule, distinct in all the specimens seen, 
Secondaries paler than the primaries, often shaded with blackish out- 
wardly, crossed by an even, rather well-defined black shade line at the 
middle and a more irregular pale line toward outer margin. This lat- 
ter line is marked in proportion to the dark shading of this pat of the 
wing and is sometimes preceded by a blackish shade. There is also a 
narrow black terminal line interrupted on the veins. Beneath more 
powdery, the primaries smoky, darker through the center, with a dark 
discal spot, a distinct black extra median line and a pale subterminal 
line, the latter reproduced from upper side. The secondaries are more 
grayish, more powdery, the maculation of the upper side reproduced, 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOIN) M oTIIS—SMITH. oD 


but much more prominently so. There is also a distinct black discal 
lunule. On both wings there is a series of terminal lunules. 

Iixpanse of wings, 21 to 27 mn. = 0.85 to 1.12 inches. 

HApbrrar.—Canada to Florida and Texas; Central States; New York 
and Delaware in June; District of Columbia in August. 

In the series of specimens before me there is little variation, except 
in size ad intensity of the ground color. As the latier deepens the 
simple markings are more relieved, and in such cases we note a vague 
pale shade indicating the course of the ordinary lines. In one speci 
men, received fron Mr. W.N, Tillant, Columbus, Ohio, the central 
space of the primaries is considerably paler than the other parts of the 
wing, and in a Delaware specimen the terminal space is quite obviously 
darkened, 

In this species the lateral bristles of the male antennw are well 
marked and quite long, and the thickening at basal third involves four 
joints. Of these, three bear stout spines inwardly; the two lower and 
shorter bear each of them two, of which that nearest the tip is stoutest, 
while the third and longer joint bears a single process basally. In the 
female the antenne are clothed with rough scales and with scarcely 
prominent lateral sete. The fore legs of the male are furnished with 
moderate tuftings only. The cavity of the coxa is filled by elongated 
scales. The femur contains no evident tuftings, while the tuft beneath 
the tibial process is sparse. 

The species is the most common of those belonging to the first series 
and is represented in most collections. It is in this, also, that we find 
the most marked tendency toward a bunching of the veins, arising from 
the accessory cell of primaries. 


Zanclognatha theralis, Walker. 


1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XIX, 855, Herminia. 
1893, Smith, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus , 44, 380, Weguchyta. 
deceptricalis, Zeller. 
1872. Zeller, Verh. k. k. Zool. Bot. Ges., XXII, 473, Zanclognatha. 
1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 306, Megachyta. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 380, pr. syn. 
gypsalis, Grote. 
1880. Grote, Bull. BLkIn. Entomological Soc., III, 65, Megachyta. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 380, pr. var. 

Ground color ashen gray, variably black powdered. Head and tho- 
rax concolorous. Primaries with the. ordinary lines marked and the 
median lines prominently dilated on the costa. Basal line marked on 
the costa only. Transverse anterior line usually distinct, single, almost 
upright, a little outwardly bent in the submedian interspace. Traus- 
verse posterior line single, black, slender, usually distinct, abruptly bent 
outwardly below the costal spot, thence crenulated and often irregular, 
yet as a whole nearly parallel with and close to the subterminal line. 
Subterminal line pale, distinct, quite rigid in course, minutely crenu- 

7862—No, 48—3 


3 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


lated, the curves directed inwardly, and the line preceded by a more or 
less well-marked black shade, which is always more distinct on the 
costa. A series of black terminal dots. Orbicular wanting. Reniform 
never well marked, blackish, indefinite, sometimes annular, never 
entirely wanting. Secondaries more thinly scaled and somewhat paler, 
crossed by an extra median dusky line, which becomes obsolete toward 
the costa, and by a pale extra median line, which 1s emphasized by a 
blackish preceding shade, most marked toward hind angle. Beneath 
whitish, powdery, both wings crossed by a fairly evident, sometimes 
prominent, extra median. and a more taint, usually punctiform, outer 
dark line. A discal spot is also obvious on all wings. 

[Eixpanse of wings, 20 to 22 inm.= 0.89 to 0.88 inch. 

HABITAT.—Nova Scotia to North Carolina, to Central States; New 
York and New Hampshire:in June. 

This species is much more rare than Z. litwralis and seems inclined to 
be more variable. The type of Z. gypsalis which I examined in the 
British Museum is a partially suffused specimen in which the base of 
the primaries is shaded with ochery and the subterminal and terminal 
spaces sprinkled with dark brown. It is not entitled to varietal rank, 
because the difference is rather in the nature of an aberration. The 
male antennie have the lateral bristles well developed and the thick- 
ening at the basal third well marked, chiefly by dense scales on the 
outer side. Two joints are furnished with stout, practically identical 
spurs, inwardly. The female antenne are feebly ciliated only. The 
fore legs of the male are prominently tufted. The coxa has only a tew 
scattering hairs, and is not grooved; the femur is grooved on the upper 
side, has a tuft of scales at base and a pencil of long yellow hair 
attached at the tip. The tibial process is very broad and large, but 
covers a comparatively small tuft of hair, the tufting of the femur 
being in this case the most important. 


Zanclognatha minoralis, new species. 


Pale ashen gray, with fuscous powderings. Head and thorax con- 
colorous. Primaries with the median space almost white, the basal 
space and all beyond the transverse posterior line with a fuscous 
washing. Basal line rather broad, diffuse, extending below the median 
vein. Transverse anterior line broad, diffuse, fuscous, somewhat 
dilated on the costa, in course with an even outcurve, and outcurved 
also between the veins. Transverse posterior line singie, well defined, 
broad, scarcely if at all dilated on the costa, with small outward teeth 
on the veins; broadly outcurved over the cell and with a feeble 
incurve below. Subterminal line whitish, rather obscure, even, nearly 
straight in course, preceded by a fuscous shading. A series of lunate 
dusky terminal spots. Through the outer part of the median space 
IS a vague, fuscous median shade, crossing the reniform. Orbicular 
wanting. Reniform distimet, rather small, oval, with a fuscous shading. 


—— ore 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. oo 


A somewhat diffuse, broad median band, followed by a subterminal 
abbreviated white line, which is preceded by a dusky shade, and is best 
marked toward the anal angle, becoming obsolete toward the costa. 
A distinet, blackish, interrupted terminal line, and a somewhat obscure 
discal lunule. Beneath, whitish, powdery, both wings with a distinet 
discal lunule and a broad extra median band; secondaries with an 
additional subterminal line, reproducing more distinctly that of the 
upper side. 

Expanse of wings 21 mm.—0.84 inch. 

Hapirrat.—Long Island, New York (probably). 

The antenne of the maie are lengthily bristled laterally, and the 
thickening at basal third is well marked, principally by the dense cloth- 
ing of scales on the outer side, because only two joints are enlarged, and 
each of these bears a single, stout, pointed spine, somewhat curved at 
tip, and of these the basalis the weaker, though a little longer. 

I have only two male specimens from the Michigan Agricultural Col- 
lege, without locality label of any kind, but probably from the Tepper 
Collection, and marked JM. deceptricalis. It is not impossible that this 
is a form of M. inconspicualis, Grote, of which I have seen no male; but 
the differences are sufficiently great to induce its description at the 
present time, to call attention to the matter, though I would not have 
considered 1t advisable to name it under other circumstances. The 
course of the lines is practically like those of JM. inconspicualis, but 
they are so much more prominent and so much more diffuse, while 
the coloration is so markedly different, as compared with its ally, that 
I hesitate to consider them identical without further material. 


Zanclognatha inconspicualis, Grote. 


1883. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, XV, 30, Megacnyta. 

Ground color an even, dull, smoky-brown or fuscous. Head and 
thorax concolorous. Primaries with basal line evident, narrow, extend- 
ing to the median vein. Transverse anterior line blackish, narrow, 
somewhat dilated on the costa, curved in the interspaces, and with a 
slight general outcurve in its course as a whole. Transverse posterior 
line threadlike, blackish, somewhat dilated on the costa, denticulated 
on the veins, outeurved over the cell, and more or less ineurved beneath. 
Subterminal line pale, variably distinct, its course nearly straight, 
with very small undulations, preceded by a variably marked blackish 
shade. Orbicular wanting. Reniform small, oval, blackish, not well 
marked. A broken, black, terminal line. Secondaries slightly paler, 
with a dusky median line; a pale or whitish subterminal line, preceded 
by a dusky shade, more evident near the anal angle, and an obscure 
discal lunule. Beneath gray, fuscous powdered, each wing with .a 
dusky discal lunule, a dark extra median line, and a more or less obvious 
pale subterminal line. 

Expanse of wings, 19 to 20mm = 0,78 to 0.82 inch, 


36 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


Haprrar.—Mount Marcy, Adirondacks, New York, July. 

The only specimens which I have seen are females, and all of those 
now before me were taken by the late Mr. W. W. Hill, in 1882, and are 
part of the lot from which Mr. Grote obtained his types. They are from 
the collections of the United States National Museum and Dr. J. A. 
Lintner, and Cam not aware of other specimens, except 1n the Hill col- 
lection. It is quite probable that the species is locally common, and 
at all events I can testify to the abundance of small, obscure forms com 


ing to light and stirred out of the scant vegetation near the top of 


Mount Marcy, where I spent a bitter cold night one August more years 
ago than I care to count. 

The possible relation of this species to Z. minoralis has been already 
discussed. 


Zanclognatha levigata, Grote. 


1872. Grote, Trans. Am. iat omotae etl Soc., LV, 95, Herminia. 

1873. Grote. Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sei., I, 39, Zanclognatha. 

1878. Grote, Bull. U.S. Geel. Surv., IV, 186, Zanclognatha. 
obsoleta, Smith. 

iss84. Smith, Bull. BkIn. Entomological Soc., VII, 5, Zanclognatha. 


Ground color varymg from carneous gray to ee red, leather brown, 
or even blackish. Head and thorax usually of the palest color found 
on the primaries. Primaries with the trausverse anterior line upright, 
or nearly so, varying somewhat in direction and sometimes with a 
small outward angulation on the subcostal. Transverse posterior line 
even, slender, with a bold outcurve over the cell and a small inecurve 
in the submedian interspace. Subterminal line pale, slightly and 
irregularly sinuate, emphasized by a more or less marked preceding 
black shade, and sometimes followed in a similar way. <A series of 
black terminal lunules varying greatly in distinctness and sometimes 
absent. Orbicular present as a distinct black spot in some specimens, 
entirely absent in others. Reniform always present, but varying from 
a distinet, black, kidney-shaped spot of good size to a slender indefinite 
dusky lunule. Secondaries varying from smoky gray to brown or 
blackish, with a dark extra median line, a pale subterminal line, a 
series of black terminal lunules, and a rather vague discal spot, which 
is sometimes wanting. Beneath, varying from smoky gray to red brown, 
powdery, with a common outer dark line and a discal lenule on all 
wings. In some cases there is also an incomplete subterminai line, 
best marked on the secondaries. 

Expanse of wings, 27 to 32 2 inches. 

HABITAT.—Canada to soutlions and Central States; South Dakota; 
July to August. 

It has been already indicated that this is an exceedingly variable 
species, and yet it is always readily distinguished, not only by the 
characters already given in the introductory remarks, but because it is 
really the only one of the genus with contrasting coloration. Ten 














A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. oe 


selected specimens before me exhibit a remarkable difference in appear- 
ance. Uniforinly colored specimens are rare, and the extreme in this 
direction is the type of my Z. obsoleta, a Vermont specimen, which is 
almost uniformly blackish. In some specimens the median lines become 
difiuse, and the transverse anterior is most usually so modified. Some- 
times the outer half of the median space is darker and sometimes the 
median space is uniformly in contrast with the basal and subterminal 
Spaces, the terminal space often varying independently. Quite as 
usually we may have the median space lighter than any other parts of 
the wing, and this contrast is often very marked. The species is 
broader winged than any of its aliies and has asomewhat more oblique 
outer margin and more perceptibly arched costa, differing, indeed, quite 
obviously from most others of its allies in these respects. It is quite 
common. 

The antenne of the male are much as usual in the genus. They have 
long lateral bristles, a scaly thickening of the outer side at basal third, 
marked by a slight bend, and inwardly two of the joints are shorter, 
stouter, each furnished with a thick pointed spine somewhat curved at 
tip. Occasionally a third joint is involved and a third smaller spine 
is present. On all the joints at this point there are an unusual number 
oi teatlike tubercles, some with and some without short hairs, and 
these are evidently sensory processes. They lessen in number in both 
directions from this point, but more gradually so toward the tip. 

The antennie of the female are laterally ciliated. 

The fore legs of the male are very prominently tufted and quite 
strongly modified. The coxa has a moderate tuft of long hairlike 
scales, those at base much the longest, then regularly becoming shorter 
to the tip. The trochanter is remarkably elongated and nearly equal 
to the femur. The femur is grooved on the upper side to receive a 
brush of hairlike scales nearly as long as femur and trochanter com- 
bined, and capable of being spread out fanlike. The tibial process is 
very large and clothed with dense, long scales, which do not, however, 
form distinct tuftings. 

In the female the fore legs are quite normal and the trochanter is not 
in any way enlarged or elongated. 


Zanclognatha punctiformis, new species. 


Ground color an even, carneous gray. Head and thorax eoneol- 
orous. Primaries with the maculation well defined. Basal line narrow, 
brown, marked on the costa only. Transverse anterior line narrow, 
brown, irregularly outcurved, and with uneven outeurves in the inter- 
spaces. Transverse posterior line narrow, brown, rather regularly 
bisinuate, a little marked, but hardly denticulate on the veins. Sub- 
terminal line sinuate, irregular, pale, lunulate, the funules emphasized 
by a series of preceding black spots, which are inwardly diffuse. A 
series of black terminal dots on the veins. The outer part of the 


38 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


median space is shaded with brown, the tint becoming obvious below 
the reniform. Orbicular wanting in the specimen. Reniform large, 
oval, brown, with a blackish defining line. Secondaries more luteous, 
paler basally, with a feebly marked, dusky extra median line, an irreg- 
ularly dentate, pale subterminal line, preceded by darker-brown spots, 
and a narrow, black, interrupted terminal line. Beneath, all wings 
with a discal lunule, a dusky extra median line, and a pale subterminal 
line, which is preceded by a darker shading. 

Expanse of wings, 29.5 mm. = 1.28 inches. 

HaprratT.—District of Columbia. 

A single specimen only, from the United States National Museum, 
“Collection ©. V. Riley.” The species very strongly resembles Z. levi- 
gata in general appearance, and with this it was associated in the 
Museum collection, though with a query. The specimen is defective 
and badly mounted, but seems to have been bred, and bears the number 
COnSb, April Liig7e2 

It is readily distinguished from Z. levigata, which it most resembles 
in superficial appearance, by the uneven transverse anterior line and 
by the characteristic, lunulate, pale subterminal line, emphasized as it 
is by the prominent preceding black spots. 

The antenne of the male do not differ in any essential feature from 
those of Z. laevigata, and there are two modified joints, with rather evenly 
curved stout spines, while the curve or bend in the antenna below the 
scaly thickening is slight. 

The forelegs differ very decidedly, however, and first in the relative 
leneth of the trochanter, which is proportionately very much shorter 
and does not equal one-fifth the length of the femur, The tuftings seem 
to be much the same in character, but are much less prominent, the hair 
much less sealelike and not so much enlarged at the tips. Theenlarge- 
ment of the tibial process is much fess evident, and indeed the entire 
foreleg is very decidedly shorter. 


Zanclognatha atrilineella, Grote. 


1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 301, Cleptomita. 

“Pale, testaceous, brownish. Primaries crossed by three black, broad, 
distinct lines. The transverse anterior even, perpendicular, broad. The 
transverse posterior narrow superiorly, exserted slightly beyond the 
disk, where it is slightly medially notched, more broadly marked below 
the submedian nervure, even. Subterminal line very broadly black, 
the subterminal space deepening in color to the line, followed by a very 
pale shade (as are the first two lines), even, a little inwardly arcuate, 
arising on costa before apex and reaching the internal margin within 
the angle. Terminally the wing is darker, more brownish. Hind 
wing a little paler, crossed by two ill-defined darker shade bands. On 
primaries a relatively large, rounded, black discal spot in the place of 
the reniform. Beneath paler, with double common lines, the subter- 





A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 39 


minal marked toward costa on both wings and discal dots. Body parts 
rather pale.” 

Iixpanse of wings, 22 mm. = 0.88 inch. 

HaABirat.—Texas, Belfrage, April 27. 

The above is Mr. Grote’s original description, and it agrees very well 
with a specimen in the collection of the American Entomological Society 
which is almost undoubtedly the type. Mr. Grote’s description of the 
genus Cleptomita also agrees with the type, one fore leg of which is 
separated and mounted on a card labeled “ Cleptolita” in his hand- 
writing. Unfortunately, the description applies equally well to other 
species of Zanclognatha, and the characterization of the fore leg shows 
that Mr. Grote did not realize the nature of the structure examined. 
I have not seen a second specimen, and can add nothing on the strue- 
ture of the antennie save that the male has the usual thickening one- 
third from base. The tuftings of the fore leg seem to be contined to 
the femur. 


Zanclognatha pedipilalis, Guenée. 


1851. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 57, Herminia. 

1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 57, Herminia. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Ain. Entomological Soc., IV, 96, Herminia, 
1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soe. Nat. Sei., I, 39, Pityolita. 

Ground color avery pale, greenish, luteous gray, finely powdered. 
Head and thorax concolorous. Primaries, basal line absent in all 
the specimens I have seen. ‘Transverse anterior tine narrow, even, 
brown, with an easy outward angleon the subcostal and thence nearly 
upright or with only a feeble outcurve tothe hind margin. Transverse 
posterior line narrow, even, brown, strongly exserted over the cell or 
sometimes subangulated, then inward and somewhat incurved to the 
Inner margin. Subterminal line narrow, even, brown, often followed 
by a narrow, more or less complete pale line, extending from apex with 
a feeble incurve to the inner margin well within the anal angle and 
usually interrupted just below the apex, so the line proper seems to 
start from veins 7 and 8 and to have no connection with the apical mark. 
A slender, usually continuous, terminal line. Orbicular wanting. Reni- 
form varying from a dot to a narrow dusky lunule. Secondaries paler, 
less densely scaled than primaries. There is a slender, threadlike, 
dusky extra median line, which is almost rectangularly bent near the 
anal angle. There is also a similar subterminal line, followed by a 
whitish shade, less abruptly bent, almost above the anal angle. A nar- 
row,. brown, continuous terminal line and a vaguely visible diseal 
lunule. Beneath, more whitish gray, often with rather coarse, reddish 
powderings, with a common extra median dusky line, a similar sub- 
terminal line, followed by a paler shade and a dark discal lunule. The 
lunules and the outer line aie variable and sometimes wanting on one 
or both pairs of wings. 


4() BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


Expanse of wings, 24 to 30 mm.=0.95 to 1.20 inches. 

HABITAT.—Middle and Central States; Virginia, New York, and 
Missouri in June; Delaware in May; District of Columbia in August. 

A very interesting and not uncommon species, which varies within 
narrow limits only. The ground color differs somewhat in intensity, 
the angle of the transverse posterior line is sometimes marked, some. 
times rounded, and sometimes a broad curve; the subterminal line may 
be more or less abruptly terminated below the apex, and the wing form 
may be more or less pointed, or apparently so. 

There can be no mistaking this form in any ease, and the course of 
the subterminal line in the primaries is quite unique in the genus. 
I would have been strongly tempted to adopt Mr. Grote’s genus could 
I have found any reasonably sufficient structural characters. 

The antennwe of the male are furnished with rather slender lateral 
bristles, and the enlargement at basal third is not prominent, the curve 
shght. Two joints are somewhat shortened and more robust, and are 
‘ach furnished with an unusually long and slender pointed process. 

The fore legs of the male are after the usual type. The coxa is slen- 
der, grooved above, with the cavity filled with elongated scales not 
forming a tuft or pencil. The trochanter is about one-third the length 
of the femur, The femur is furnished on the underside with elongated 
scales, massed at base to a loose tuft of a black color, but not form- 
ing anywhere a distinct pencil. The tibial process is large, and covers 
a very dense mass of elongated black scales, forming no obvious pen- 
cil, but giving the appearance of such at first sight. The species is 
thus characterized by a lack of distinct pencils of yellow hair and by 
the fact that the specialized clothing is on the under rather than the 
upper side of the femur. 


Zanclognatha cruralis, Guenée. 


1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 58, Herminia. 

1859. Waller, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, X VI, 103, Herminia. 

1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 97, Herminia. 

1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sei., 1, 39, Zanclognatha. 
jacchusalis, Walker. 

1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 104, Herminia. 

1893. Smith, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 44, 382, pr. syn. 


Ground color a rather dark luteous brown. Primaries with the usual 
lines well marked and even, not denticulate or crenulate. Basal line 
wanting in the specimens beforeme. Transverse anterior line distinct, 
brown, a little outeurved or bent on the costal vein, thence quite evenly 
or with a feeble outcurve, to the inner margin. Transverse posterior 
line slender, brown, broadly outeurved, sometimes subangulated over the 
cell and quite markedly ineurved below; sometimes the line is quite 
evenly bisinuate. Subterminal line quite prominent, consisting of a 
narrow pale, preceded by a broader brown shade line, which oceasion- 
ally absorbs its lighter companion. In course it is quite rigid from the 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 4] 


costa well before the apex to the inner margin well within the anal 
angle. A blackish, terminal, dotted line on the veins. Orbicular want- 
ing; reniform small, a brown line or lunule. Secondaries somewhat 
paler than primaries, with a rather vague, often obsolete discal lunule, 
a somewhat indistinct extra median dark line, which is subangulate 
toward the inner margin, a more distinct subterminal brown, followed 
by a yellowish line, and a narrow, dark terminal line. Beneath paler, 
powdery, all wings with a blackish discal spot, a rather well-marked 
extra median line, and a variably distinct subterminal line, which is 
often followed by a pale shade line. 

Expanse of wings, 25 to 28 mm. —1 to 1.12 inches. 

HAB(TAT.—Nova Scotia to Virginia; Central States; New. Mexico; 
New York; Illinois and District of Columbia, July and August. 

The typeof Mr. Walker’s species is the same as the Z. cruralis of the 
Grote collection, which I believe to be correctly determined. The Z. 
cruralis of Walker is the Z. lavigata of Mr. Grote. 

This species is quite common, and is very little subject to variation. 
In its markings it is very like Z. pedipilalis except as to the subterminal 
line, and it las the same tendency to form an angulation in the trans- 
verse posterior line over the cell. Small specimens which are a little 
rubbed may be easily confused with Z. obseuripennis, which differs mainly 
in the denticulated transverse posterior line. 

The antennie of the male are after the usual type; but the bend at 
basal third is much more prominent, and beyond it the joints are more 
slender than toward the base. Two joints are furnished with corneous 
processes which are very stout and pointed, and when at rest join at 
the tip so closely as to appear like a single heavy process at that point. 

The fore legs of the male are well furnished with tuftings. The coxa 
is grooved and furnished with an imperfect pencil of slender scales 
attached at and near the base. The trochanter is rather more than 
one-fourth the length of thefemur. The femur is grooved on the upper 
side, furnished with a tuft of elongated black seales at the base, and at 
the tip with a pencil of long, flattened, yellow hair, which may be spread 
fanlike. The tibial process is very large and covers a dense mass of 
blackish seales which are elongated without forming a distinet brush or 
pencil, and are not capable of fanlike expansion. 


Zanclognatha obscuripennis, Grote. 


1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soec., IV, 309, Herminia. 
1873. Grote, Bull. Butt. Soe. Nat. Sei., 1, 39, Zanclognatha. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 382, Zanclognatha. 

Ground color a purplish smoky brown, rarely varying to a reddish 
shade. Primaries with the maculation obscure. Basal line wanting. 
Transverse anterior line fairly distinct, bent over the costa and nearly 
straight below this point. Transverse posterior line slender, thread- 
like, obscure, often partly obsolete, more or less obviously but always 


42 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


feebly denticulate; in course, bisinuate, outcurved over the cell, incurved 
beneath. Subterminal line rigid, pale, preceded by a brown shade 
which is inwardly diffuse. A series of black, venular, terminal dots. 
Orbicular wanting. Reniform a very obscure dusky lunule, which is 
sometimes barely traceable. Secondaries more powdery and somewhat 
paler than primaries, with an obscure dusky extra median line and a 
more evident, sometimes even well-marked, pale subterminal line. 
There 1s also a slender dark terminal line, followed by a yellowish line 
at the base of the fringes, and occasionally a vague discal lunule. 
Beneath, more gray and quite coarsely powdery. All wings with a 
discal spot, a well-marked extra median line, and a variably distinet 
pale subterminal line, which is more frequently wanting on the pri- 
mares. 

Expanse of wings, 21 to 25 mm. = 0.84 to 1 ineh. 

Hapirat.—New York to Alabama; District of Columbia, in August. 

This, so far as the specimens before me indicate, is a very constant 
species, liable to be confused with Z. cruralis and Z. minimalis. From 
the latter it differs in the rigid transverse anterior line; from the former 
in the purplish ground color and generally obscure maculation, the 
transverse posterior line tending to become obsolete, while it is usually 
somewhat irregularly, though feebly, denticulated. The subterminal 
line is preceded by a brown shade, rather than a line, and these char- 
acters, with the decidedly smaller average size will enable the species 
to be recognized in most instances. Most of the specimens before me 
are from the United States National Museum, ‘“ collection C. V. Riley,” 
and bear his record number, 2807, and dates ranging from August 7 
to 17. 

In the structure of the male antenne and fore legs this species resem- 
bles Z. cruralis closely, and in the latter character indeed no essential 
difference has been noted. The characters of the antennie are some- 
what :ntensified, however—that is, the bend is more marked, the joints 
beyond more slender, while the corneous processes are heavier, and a 
third joint is often involved, also furnished with a process. Otherwise 
no notable difference has been made out. 


Zanclognatha protumnosalis, Walker. 


1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 104, Herminia. 

1893. Smith, Bull. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 44, 385, Zanclognatha. 
minimalis, Grote. 

1878. Grote, Bull. U.S. Geol. Surv., IV, 186, Zanclognatha. 

1891. Smith, List Lepidoptera, 63, pr. syn. 

1893. Smith, Bull. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 44, 383, pr. syn. 

Ground color varying from luteous to purplish smoky brown. Head 
and thorax concolorous. Primaries with all the maculation usually 
obscure. Basal line traceable on the costa in some specimens, usually 
obsolete. Transverse anterior line slender, brown, evenly but not 
strongly outeurved, with moderate outward angulations between the 


} ae 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 43 


veins. Transverse posterior line slender, brown, slightly more marked 
on the costa, as is also the transverse anterior line; in course somewhat 
irregularly bisinuate, more or less distinctly, but always obviously, 
denticulate on the veins. Subterminal line rigid, pale, more or less 
marked, rarely conspicuous, not defined by darker hne or shade A 
series of black, venular, terminal dots. Orbicular wanting. Reniform 
an oval, more or less obscure blackish spot. Secondaries pale, dirty 
luteous, powdery. A vague, extra median dark line, which is sometimes 
obsolete; and a better marked, sometimes quite prominent, pale sub 
terminal line, in continuation of the corresponding line of the primaries. 
A broken, blackish, terminal line. Beneath paler, more gray, powdery ; 
all wings with a diseal spot, a dusky extra median and pale subterminal 
line, varying in prominence and sometimes almost immaculate 

Expanse of wings 24 to 26 mm. = 0.96 to 1.05 inches. 

HABrirat.—Canada to District of Columbia; New York in July. 

This species is quite usually confused with Z. obscuripennis or even Z. 
cruralis, differing from both by tee angulated transverse anterior line 
of the primaries. I have only five specimens before me, from as many 
localities, indicating rather an uncommon form. Of these, four are 
luteous, like the types in the British Museum, and differ only in the 
relative prominence of the reniform; while one specimen without 
definite locality, but probably from Long Island, N. Y., is of a very 
decided purplish brown, with a strongly contrasting subterminal line. 
It is possible that we have to do here with a different species, but the 
material is not sufficient to decide the question. As has been indicated, 
the types of Z. protumnosalis and Z. minimalis are of the luteous form. 

In the male characters this species is very like Z. obscuripennis, 
especially in the antenne, in which three jomts are quite generally 
furnished with corneous processes, the third or upper decidedly smaller 
than the others. 

Zanclognatha marcidilinea, Grote 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am, Entomological Soc., IV, 93 and 309, Herminia. 
1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sei., 1, 39, Zanelognatha. 

Ground color luteous, with fine,even, ocherous powderings. Head 
and thorax concolorous. Primaries with the median lines very slender, 
tending to obsolescence. Basal line wanting. Transverse anterior 
line quite evenly outeurved and with moderate outcurves im the inter- 
spaces. Transverse posterior line irregularly bisinuate, with moderate 
denticulations on the veins. Subterminal line pale, rigid, not defined 
by dark lines or shades. <A series of venular black terminal dots or 
lunules. Secondaries paler than the primaries, with a very feebly 
marked, dusky, extra median line, and a more distinct, pale subterminal 
line. An interrupted brown terminal line. Beneath pale, Inteous 
gray, with ocherous powderings. All wings with a diseal spot, a brown 
extra median and a pale subterminal line, and all variably evident, 
sometimes nearly obsolete. 


44 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


Expanse of wings, 25 to 30mm,.=1 to 1.20 inches. 

Hasrrar.—Northern, Middle, and Central States, south to Alabama; 
New York, July to September; Delaware in July. 

The antenne are longer and more slender than in the species imme- - 
diately preceding, and more as in Z. laevigata and Z. pedipilalis; the 
lateral bristles longer and more siender. The bend at the basal third 
is well marked, and two joints are furnished with processes which are 
eurved and pointed at tip. The tuftings of the fore legs are prominent. 
The coxa has a pencil of hair-like scales attached near base. The 
trochanter is one-third as long as the femur. The femur has a tuft of 
elongated black scales at base and a pencil of yellow, hair-like scales 
attached at tip and capable of fanlike expansion. The tibial process 
is large, and the sealy clothing is dense, forming no distinct pencils. 


Zanclognatha ochreipennis, Grote. 


1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 98, Herminia. 
1873. Grote, Bull. Butt. Soe. Nat. Sei., I, 39, Zanclognatha. 

Ground color luteous with dense, coarse, ocherous powderings. Head 
and thorax concolorous. Primaries with the median lines brown, 
usually well marked and broad. Transverse anterior line outwardly 
convex as a whole, with variably marked outeurves in the interspaces: 
Transverse posterior line irregularly bisinuate, outwardly denticulate 
on the veins. Subterminal line rigid, pale, usually prominent, generally 
defined by a preceding brown shade line, which occasionally forms the 
more obvious portion of the line. <A series of black terminal lunules or 
dots on the veins. Secondaries pale luteous gray to smoky, with a 
variably defined, sometimes quite distinct, extra-median dark line, and 
a distinct, sometimes prominent, pale subterminal line, which is often 
preceded and defined by a darker shading. A black or brown, inter 
rupted, terminal line. Beneath, paler, coarsely powdered, all wings 
with a discal spot, a dark extra-median and pale subterminal line, the 
latter sometimes preceded by a darker shade line. ; 

Expanse of wings, 27 to 52mm=:1.10 to 1.30 inches. 

HaprratT,—Canada to Virginia; Central States; Colorado. Canada 
in July; New York, July to September; Illinois, July and August; 
District of Columbia in August. 

This species and Z. marcidilinea are very unsatisfactorily distin- 
euished; yet they seem to be good species. Such.differences as exist 
are comparative, and are obvious only in fairly good specimens, becom- 
ing more or less lost when they arerubbed. Asa whole, Z. marcidilinea 
averages smaller, is much.more even in color, with less tendency to 
ocherous; the median lines are decidedly narrower and much less dis- 
tinet, tending even to obsolescence, particularly ip the transverse 
posterior line; and the subterminal line is rarely defined by a darker 
shadeline. 7Z. ochreipennis is coarsely powdered as arule, of a brighter, 
more intense ground color, varying to a much darker shade; quite 
usually becoming darker terminally and relieving the more prominent 








A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. A} 


subterminal line, which is frequently preceded by a dark line. The 
median lines are not thread-like, are usually weil marked, and obscured 
only in very dark specimens. Yet withal the differences are unsatisfae- 
tory, and structural characters do not help us much. 

The forelegs are practically as in Z. marcidilinea, save that the 
trochanter is somewhat shorter and about one-fourth the length of the 
femur. The antenne are somewhat shorter and stouter, and there is 
often a third joint furnished with a spinous process. Else I find no 
notable differences. 


Genus HORMISA, Walker. 


1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 74. 
Lilognatha, Grote. 

1873. Grote, Bull. Butt. Soc. Nat. Sei.. 1, 85. 
Pallachira, Grote 

1877. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, IX, 197. 
Sisyrhypena, Grote. 

1873. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, V, 227. 

Eyes naked, large, globose. Front smooth, in perfeet examples with 
a pointed tuft between the antennw; but this is a variable and often 
defective feature. Tongue moderate. Antenne moderate in length, 
arising from the vertex close to the compound eye, the basal joint 
enlarged in the male, less prominent in the female. In the male the 
antenne are bipectinated, a single branch on each side of each joint, 
except that at the inner side, for one-third from base, the pectinatious 
are wanting. At this point two or three joints bear specialized cor- 
neous processes similar to those in Zanclognatha, and beyond it the 
antenne are normal. In the female the antenne are simple, with 
shght lateral ciliations, the ciliations apparently arising from alternate 
joints only. The palpi are sickle-shaped, curving upward and dis- 
tinctly exceeding the vertex, in essential character like Zanclognatha, 
Ocelli distinct, close to the compound eye, and also close to the base 
of the antenna. The body is slight, untufted, the abdomen cylindrical, 
exceeding the anal angles of the secondaries. Legs long, quite robust, 
the posterior being most developed and much the longest, without 
armature other than the usual spurs of middle and posterior pairs. 

In the male the anterior tibixe are remarkably modified, All the 
parts are elongated and tufted, the trochanter is excessively developed 
im all the species, the tibia is an abortion, and the tarsi are obsolete in 
some species. The tibial process is the most prominent part of the leg 
and covers amass of specialized, blackish scales. 

The wings are moderate and proportionate, the primaries, except in 
H. orciferalis, trigonate, with marked or even pointed apices; in the 
latter subequal, with obtuse or rounded apex. 

Mr. Grote’s name, Litognatha, must yield to the earlier term used by 
Walker, and in the above definition are also included Mr, Grote’s genera 
Pallachira aud Sisyrhypena as well as Hormisa proper. For Pallachira 


AG BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


there is no base except the longitudinally strigata markings of the 
wings; but in Srsyrhypena the wing form and color give the species 
quite a distinct appearance which is not borne out by the more essen- 
tial characteristics. The genus differs from Zanclognatha mainly in 
having pectinated antenne in the male, and by the more complete 
abortion of the male fore legs. Otherwise the essential characters are 
much the same. 

The species are not closely allied and are separable with ease. H. 
absorptalis, or nubilifascia, as it is more usually labeled, is the largest, the 
wings broader than in its allies, and the transverse posterior and sub- 
terminal lines are marked by prominent, preceding, brown shades, 
which are diffuse inwardly. 

H. litophora is smaller, and the wings are narrower and more pointed 
than in its allies. The median lines are narrow and thread-like, not 
emphasized in any way, and the subterminal line is barely traceable 
or entirely obsolete. 

» H. bivittata nearly equals H. nubilifascia im size, but is narrower 
winged and with a somewhat less prominent apex. it lacks all the 
transverse lines, but has a broad, velvety brown longitudinal streak 
through the submedian interspace, and a short brown streak beyond 
the cell, not reaching the outer margin. 

> H. orciferalis is quite unlike all the others, which are luteous or 
whitish, in the blackish smoky ground color, on which all the markings 
are obscure, and in the subequal primaries, which have the apex obtusely 
rounded. 

The species are few in number and widely distinct. None of them 
are common, though H. nubilifascia is not rare. ‘ 

Litognatha linearis, Grote, does not belong to the genus, nor, indeed, 
to this series; that is, it 1s not a Deltoid at all. 


‘ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES OF HORMISA. 


Transverse iines distinct; color Inteous; no longitudinal streakings. 
Larger; ali the lines prominent, the transverse posterior and subterminal 


marked! by brown preceding shades oo a. -e eee ee ABSORPTALIS. 
Smaller; median lines narrow and threadlike; subterminal line scarcely trace- 
ables no brown shadines==22 Se ee.cosctpe eee eee LITOPHORA. 


Transverse lines obsolete; color luteous; two prominent black longitudinal streaks, 
BIVITTATA. 

All markings obscure; color smoky or blackish; one darker longitudinal streak 
faintly marked inanost specimens=--- 2-2-2 -se === ORCIFERALIS. 


Hormisa absorptalis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 74, Hormisa. 
nubilifascia, Grote. 
1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sei., I, 85, pl. 2, figs. 2, 5, Litognatha. 
18938. Smith, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 44, 580, pr. syn. 
Ground color a pale luteous or dirty vellowish gray, with fine black 
powderings. Head and thorax concolorous. Primaries with a brown- 


et eat 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 47 


ish shade on the costa. Transverse anterior line slender, even, brown, 
widely outcurved and outwardly angulate in the interspaces. It is 
rarely distinct and sometimes entirely wanting. Transveyse posterior 
line broad, brown, inwardly diffuse, widening to the hind margin. It 
is outwardly bent on the costa and then runs rigidly oblique inwardly, 
reaching the hind margin at its middle. A paler shade following the 
line, quite marked in some specimens, merging insensibly into the 
ground color, which in turn darkens to the rigid brown subterminal 
line, which runs from the apex without curve or bend to the inner mar- 
gin, well within the anal angle, and is followed by a somewhat defined 
pale line. A continuous brown terminal line, followed by a yellow line 
at the base of the fringes. Orbicular wanting. Reniform indicated by 
two black dots at the end of the cell. Secondaries paler, with a dusky 
median line, and a pale external line which is somewhat irregular and 
is preceded by a brown shade. Beneath, darker, with dense, coarse, 
ocherous brown powderings. There is a distinct, broad, common 
median line, and a less evident pale subterminal line, which on second- 
aries 1s often preceded by a dusky shade. All wings with a discal 
spot. 

Expanse of wings, 24 to 26 mm.=0.96 to 1.05 inches. 

Hapiratr.—Canada, south to Virginia: west to the Mississippi 
States. New York in July. 

This is the most common of the species, and always easily recognized 
by the brown shaded transverse posterior and subterminal lines. There 
is very little variation, and this chiefly in the relative distinetness of 
the transverse anterior line. 

The antennze of the male have been generally described under the 
generic heading. The pectinations are long, and from most of them 
there arises near the tip a long slender bristle, which replaces the 
pectinations inwardly at the basal third. At this point two joints 
bear each a stout corneous process, and next to each a stiff bristle or 
spine. The pectinations are ciliated, the hair very fine and moderate 
in length on the inner underside. Just below the pectination on that 
side is also, on each joint, a short chitinous process, bearing in a pit a 
short stout bristle or spine. 

The fore legs of the male are extremely modified. The coxa is long, 
grooved, furnished with long hair, forming no tufts or pencils. The 
trochanter is shorter, but nearly double the length of the femur. The 
latter is short and stout, with a circular disklike enlargement at base 
of underside, which is furnished with coarse pittings and with long 
black specialized scales. On the upper side it is fringed with similar 
longer hair and scales, forming no tufts. The tibia is reduced to an 
oval mass of scales covered by a chitinous shell, and the tarsi are 
rudimentary, almost completely aborted. The legs furnished with 
these structures have, of course, entirely lost their normal function as 
organs of locomotion, and are examples of modification run riot, 


48 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


Hormisa litophora, Grote. 
1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., 1, 86, Litognatha. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 44, 380, Hurmisa. 

Ground color pale grayish yellow or luteous. Head and thorax con- 
colorous. Primaries with costa and fringes brownish. Transverse 
anterior line slender, even, brown, a little outeurved below the costa; 
thence evenly oblique to the hind margin. Transverse posterior line 
slender, brown, even, strongly outcurved over the cell, then inwardly 
oblique and with a slight incurve to the hind margin about two-thirds 
from base. Subterminal line vaguely indicated by a few brown scales. 
A narrow line at the base of fringes. Orbicular marked by a black dot 
on the transverse anterior line. Reniform marked by two black dots 
at the end of the cell. Secondaries paler, almost immaculate; a vague 
darker median line and a mere trace of an outer or subterminal line. 
Fringes brown with a somewhat metallic reflection, as has also the 
fiiuge of primaries. Beneath paler, with dense ocherous powderings, 
with a common median line, which 1s crenulate and broader on the 
primaries, where 1t becomes also more even toward the costa. 

Expanse of wings, 25 mm, —0.92 inch. 

Haprrar.—Middle and Central States. 

This is smaller and narrower winged than H. absorptalis, the primaries 
somewhat more pointed or drawn out apically. The body 1s shght, 
pyralidiform, and the abdomen considerably exceeds the anal angle ot 
the secondaries. The species is rare, and I have seen very few speci- 
mens, showing no variations. 

The male antennee are in type as in the previous species; but there 


are four modified joints, more or Jess lamellate, and one of these, the - 


upper, is furnished with a stout and rather long chitinous spine; the 
scaly clothing being also more dense and prominent. 

The fore legs of the male are essentially as in H. absorptalis, except 
that the tarsi are not quite aborted. The basal joint is very long and 
stout, though & mere shell, the three ensuing joints are minute, but the 
fourth is enlarged, somewhat bulbous, with quite prominent, toothed 
claws. Abortion is not carried quite:so far here as in its ally; but the 


curious tarsal modification is as interesting as the complete absence of 


this feature. 
Hormisa bivittata, Grote. 


1877. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, IX, 198, Pallachira. 

“Entirely pale ochery, powdered with fuscous. A broad fuscous 
stripe below median vein from base to external margin. A second, 
shorter stripe, from the extremity of the cell outwardly. [Else the 
entire insect is concolorous.” 

Expanse of wings, 25 to 26 mm. = 1 to 1.05 inches. 

Haprrat.—Canada; Northern, Middle, aud Ceutral States; lowa. 
New York in July. 


Dg ee ie 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS——SMITH. 49 


A rare species, of which [ have only a female at hand. I have seen 
the male, however, and find it fully congeneric with //. absorptalis; 
indeed, Mr. Grote’s generic description of Pallachira is in all essentials 
like that given by me for Hormisa. 

The species can not be mistaken for any other in the entire Deltoid 
series represented in our fauna. The specific description is copied 
from Mr. Grote’s original characterization, and 1s ample for the defini- 
tion of this simply marked form. 


Hormisa orciferalis, Walker. 

1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 235, ? Hormisa. 
1859 Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XIX, 876, ? Epizeuris. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 44, 386, Sisyrhypena. 

pupillaris, Grote. 
i873. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, V, 227, Sisyrhypena. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 44, 386, pr. syn. 

hartii, French. 
1894. French, Bull. Ills. State Lab. Nat. Hist., 1V, 10, Pallachira. 

“Male. Concolorous, silky drab, veins tending to be paler marked, 
Primaries with diffuse darker terminal shading, and a discal, narrow, 
outwardly extended streak. An exceedingly fine and faint outer trais- 
verse line, rounded opposite the discal cell. A subterminal oblique 
punctiform line from apices to internal margin within the angle. Costal 
margin dark shaded. The discal dots are perceivable against the 
longitudinal discal streak. Hind wings a little paler, with a very faint 
transverse shade line. Au interrupted fine dotted line before the silky 
fringes on both wings. Beneath darker; the hind wings much clouded 
with dark brownish, with a distinct discal spot and a continued trans: 
verse guttiform or cuneiform subterminal line, analagous to the subter- 
ininal line of the fore wings above; faint traces of au inner transverse 
line. Fore wings without markings except an incomplete reproduction 
of the subterminal shaded apices. Body parts concolorous; abdomen 
like hind, thorax like fore wings.” 

“Female. The labial palpi are held as in the male, but the third article 
is more pointed. Slighter than the male, with simple antenne and with 
almost wholly blackish brown primaries. The male exhibits two trans- 
verse lines, while both female specimens have entirely glossy brown fore 
wings without apparent marks except the inconspicuous discal points. 
Hind wings pale drab, with faint darker terminal shading. Beneath, 
the secondaries have the double lines more equally defined. Thorax 
and head dark, concolorous with primaries.” 

Expanse of wings, 21 to 25 mm. = 0.85 to 0.90 inch. 

HapiratT.—Texas, Florida, Southern States; Illinois; Philadelphia. 

The above is Mr. Grote’s original description, which is applicable to 
the types and to most of the other specimens seen by me. A male 
example from Florida, now beture me, is considerably darker, smoky, 
almost blackish. I have seen this species only rarely, and never from 

7862— No, 45——4 


50 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


any point so far north as Philadelphia, from which one of Mr. Grote’s 
specimens is credited, 

The male antenne have the pectinations well marked and laterally 
ciliated, furnished near tip with a long bristle, and toward the apex the 
branches become clavate or somewhat enlarged, clublike. Atone-third 
from base a single joint is inwardly furnished with a single corneous 
process, accompanied by a stiff bristle, and in all essentials the member 
agrees with the genus to which it is referred. 

The anterior leg of the male is lke that of Litophora, save that there 
are no tuftings. The sensitive space on the under side of the femur is 
more protuberant, rounded, and fits quite closely against the tibial 
epiphysis, which in turn fits into the greatly developed tibial process, 
forming an oval mass beyond which the four rudimentary tarsal joints 
project. In this oval mass are concealed the specialized scales which 
nowhere develop into pencils of hair. 

Except for the wing form, this species agrees in all its essential fea- 
tures with the other species of the genus to which I have referred it. 
The apices here are usually as distinctly rounded as they are pointed, 
or at least rectangular, in the other forms; but the difference is hardly 
greater than that found among the species of Zanclognatha, and I have 
not deemed it well to disassociate it. The palpi show a tendency to 
an upright scaling of the upper edge; but not more marked than in 
some specimens of H. absorptalis. 

Professor French’s type of Pallachira hartii I have seen by the 
courtesy of Professor Forbes. It 1s typical H. orciferalis and agrees 
fully with Mr. Grote’s description of male 7. pupillaris. Professor French 
allowed the obvious resemblance to Pallachira bivittata to delude him 
into the belief that it could not have been described under another 
generic name. 


Genus PHILOMETRA, Grote. 


1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 99. 

Eyes naked, large, globose. Front smooth, in perfect specimens with 
a pointed tuft between the antenne. Tongue moderate. Antenne 
long, arising from the vertex close to the compound eye, the basal joint 
somewhat enlarged in the male. In the male the antenne are lengthily 
bipectinated in their entire extent, the branches slender and setose, and 
there is no special modification. In the female the antennze are shorter, 
simple or sparsely ciliated. Ocell distinct, close to the compound eye, 
well removed from the base of the antenne in P. eumelusalis, quite 
closely approximated in P. metonalis. Palpi long, the second jomt much 
the longest, clothed with upright scales above and on the side, forming 
a sharp ridge which in P. metonaiis is equal and continuous, but in 
P, eumelusalis is more prominent centrally. In the former the palpi 
are directed straight forward, the terminal jomts diverging at tip, 
while im the latter they diverge from the base and aire curved obliquely 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. t 


ot 
— 


upward, but not sicklelike, nor backward. The body is moderate or 
slight, the abdomen cylindrical, subequal, reaching to or slightly 
exceeding the anal angle of secondaries. The wings are large, trigo- 
nate, wide, with arched costa, rectangular apices, and evenly curved 
outer margin. Venationnormal. Legs long and quite robust, without 
armature, save the usual spurs of the middle and hind tibiw, and these 
are long and unequal. 

In the male the modification is quite different in the species. In //. 
metonalis it resembles that usual in Hormisa, while in H. eumelusalis 
the tuftings equal or exceed in prominence any found in Zanclognatha. 

The essential characters of the genus are the lengthily and evenly 
pectinated antenne of the male combined with the palpal structure 
and broad rounded wings. 

The two species referred to here are so similar in type of maculation 
that, when rubbed, there is sometimes a question as to species, and yet 
they are quite strongly distinct, structurally. The difference between 
the palpi was pointed out by Mr. Grote; that between the forelegs of 
the male seems to have escaped him. 

P. eumelusalis, which may be considered the type of the genus, is 
larger in average expanse and darker, the luteous ground strongly 
powdered with brown scales, which form a rather distinet, though dif- 
fuse, median band, and a quite marked shade preceding the subtermi- 
nal line. The median lines, on the other hand, are vague and-obscure. 

In P. metonalis the ground color is paler and much more even; the 
median shade, when visible, as 1t usually is, only a little darker, while 
the subterminal shade is barely traceable in most instances. The 
median lines, however, are usually distinct, though narrow and thread- 
like, and are more even than in its ally. 

Further differences will appear in the detailed descriptions of the 
species, neither of which is rare. 


ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES OF PHILOMETRA. 


Palpi directed straight forward, diverging at tip; antenna of male lengthily bipee- 


tinated, the branches slender, setose.- ...:.....=:..--=-.---.------METONALIS. 
Palpi directed obliquely upward, diverging from base; antenna of male bipecti- 
nated, the branches stout, with stout, long bristles near tip-..-.&UMELUSALIs. 


Philometra metonalis, Walker. 


1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 236, Herminia. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 383, Philometra. 

gaosalis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XIX, 876, Hpizeuris. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. 8S. Nat. Mus., 44, 3885, Philometra. 

longilabris, Grote. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 99, 309, Philometra. 
1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sei., I, 40, Philometra. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U, S. Nat, Mus., 44, 383, pr. syn. 


52 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


Ground color a pale luteous, powdered with darker scales. Head 
and thorax concolorous, Primaries with the markings evident, though 
not prominent, without contrasting shades. Basal line vaguely marked 
in some specimens. ‘Transverse anterior line slender, brown, rarely 
indistinct, slightly outeurved, a little drawn in on the median vein. 
Transverse posterior line slender, somewhat dilated on the costa, reg- 
warly and somewhat variably outcurved over the cell, and rather 
evenly oblique or with a small incurve below. Subterminal line vague, 
marked as a somewhat diffuse, indefinite dusky shade, which is some- 
times searcely traceable and sometimes fairly marked, occasionally 
forming a dusky apical spot. Through the outer portion of the median 
space is a broad, diffuse, often indistinct, always indefinite, darker, 
brown shade band, involving the slender lunule which represents the 
reniform. Orbicular wanting, or marked only by a small dot on the 
transverse anterior line. A slender, dark, continuous terminal line, 
followed by a more or less obvious pale line at the base of the fringes. 
Secondaries paler, sometimes whitish, with a darker median line, most 
evident in pale specimens, and an incomplete outer pale line, defined 
toward the inner margin by a preceding dusky shade. Beneath, with 
coarse, ocherous powderings, with a distinet, brown common extra- 
median line and a distinct discal dot on all wings. 

Expanse of wings, 21 to 26 mm.=0.85 to 1.05 inches. 

HABITAT.—Nova Scotia, southward to Virginia; Central States; 
New York in June, July, and August. 

The species is not rare, and varies within narrow limits only. The 
ground color may be somewhat lighter or darker, and the powdering 
more or less evident, and as the specimens are darker the lines are 
less distinet and the median shade band becomes more obvious; and 
such specimens, when imperfect, may be confused with P. ewmelusalis 
if the structural characters are not looked to. The palpi have been 
already referred to, and it is a matter of regret that Mr. Grote’s expres- 
sive name could not have been retained. 

The male antenne are lengthily bipectinated, the branches slender, 
setose, the surface imbricated very much as in the Aphidida@, becoming 
shorter and somewhat clavate toward the tip; not furnished with a 
longer terminal bristle. In the female the joints are shorter and are 
feebly ciliated. 

The fore legs of the male are much as in Hormisa. The coxa is long, 
furnished with an imperfect scale tuft at the apex. The trochanter 
equals the femur in length. Femur rather stout, with a diffused sen- 
sitive surface beneath, and long, specialized scales, not forming tufts. 
The tibia consists mainly of epiphysis and process, forming a sort of 
pouch concealing long specialized scales, and concealing all save the 
terminal joint of the tarsi. 

In the fore wings examined, vein 10 arises from the accessory cell 
near its tip, independent of 8, 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. AO 
Philometra emelusalis, Walker. 


1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 105, Herminia. 
1891. Smith, List Lepidoptera, 63, Philometra. 

serraticornis, Grote. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 98, 309, Philometra. 
1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., I, 40, Philometra. 
1891. Smith, List Lepidoptera, 63, pr. syn. 

Ground color luteous, with blackish and brown powderings. Head 
and thorax concolorous. Primaries with the powderings dense, though 
irregularly distributed, giving the wings a peculiarly sordid or dirty 
appearance. Basal line faintly marked in some specimens. Transverse 
anterior line blackish, rarely distinct, often diffuse and indefined, with 
two even outcurves in its course. Transverse posterior line slender, 
irregular; a little marked on the veins, irregularly outcurved over the 
cell, somewhat incurved beneath; often diffuse and sometimes almost 
obsolete, except on the costa, where it is somewhat dilated. Subtermi- 
nal line irregularly sinuate, pale, marked by a more or less distinct 
apical bloteh and preceding shade, which becomes inwardly diffuse and 
sometimes darkens a large part of the subterminal space. A narrow, 
black, interrupted terminal line. A broad, diffuse, indefined, almost 
upright, smoky median shade, involving the reniform, which is usually 
a narrow lunule, but sometimes a more prominent oval, though not 
defined, blotch. ‘There is sometimes a vague trace of an orbicular. 
Secondaries paler, varying in shade, always powdery, with an indefined 
median shade line, more obvious in pale specimens, and an incomplete 
subterminal line, which is pale and preceded by a dark shade toward 
the hind margin; occasionally this line is complete, and then the ter- 
minal space is somewhat paler than the rest of the wing; beneath 
brighter yellowish, with ocherous powderings. There is a distinct, 
common, brown median line, a distinet discal lunule, whieh on the 
secondaries 1S sometimes faintly visible on the upper side, and a vague, 
incomplete outer line. 

Expanse of wings, 25 to 30 mm.=1 to 1.20 inches. 

HAprrat.—Canada to Virginia, west to Iowa; South Dakota, June 
and July. 

The species is common and varies little. It is usually a question of 
a more or less dense dark powdering and the corresponding obscurity 
of the ordinary lines. 

In the male the antennie are bipectinated, the processes long, some- 
what enlarged toward the tip, near which is inserted a long, curved 
bristle, the surface smooth, without scaly markings, but with obvious 
pittings, and they are quite abundantly setose. 

The fore legs of the male are quite different from the preceding 
species. The coxa is long, slender, and with a pencil of scale-like hair 
at its tip. The trochanter is long, scarcely shorter than the femur. 
The femur is stout and on the under side furnished with a dense pencil 


54 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


of long black hair, capable of fanlike expansion. The tibia is nearly 
all process, the epiphysis small, the outer shell covering a dense tuft 
of blackish hair-and scales, capable of loose brushy expansion, and 
these scales extend beyond the chitinous structure and conceal the 
remnant of the tarsus which is almost aborted. 

In the specimens examined of this species, the accessory cell of 
primaries gives rise at its tip to 7 and a long stalk, from which arise 
8, 9, and 10. 

The structural differences between the two species referred here are 
ereater than in any other genus in the series, and withal the super: 
ficial resemblance is quite marked. 


Genus CHYTOLITA. Grote. 


1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 309. 

1873. Grote, Bull. Buif. Soc. Nat. Sci., I, 39. 
Herminia, Guenée. 

1882. Smith, Bull. BkIn. Entomological Soc., V, 4. 

Eyes naked, moderate, globose. Front smooth, with a pointed tuft 
between the antennse. Antenne long, inserted on the vertex, close 
to the compound eye. In the male the joints are marked, heavily 
scaled, with long lateral bristles, and at basal third are two or 
three joints that are thickened and furnished with, each, a stout 
corneous process, the third when present always smaller than the 
others, and, in fact, merely a somewhat shorter and stouter lateral 
bristle. In the female the joints are very slightly marked and are 
furnished with small lateral bristles. The ocelli are prominent, set 
close to the compound eye, moderately removed from the base of 
the antenne. Palpi long, straightly projected forward or directed 
obliquely upward, the second joint extremely long, the third short and 
set in at an upward angle to the second. The second joint is clothed 
with upright scales, forming a ridge or edge, or, as the Germans 
render it, “‘schneidig beschuppt,” and this scaly clothing is nearly 
equal throughout, shortening only at extreme base. Body moderate, 
untufted, abdomen smooth, cylindric, reaching to or slightly exceed- 
ing the hind angle of secondaries. Legs long and moderately stout, 
spurs of the middle and hind tibiz long, unequal. Fore legs in the 
male very much elongated and prominently tufted. The coxa is very 
long and furnished with very long yellow hair, longest toward base, 
forming a somewhat imperfect tuft. Trochanter comparatively short. 
Femur stout, furnished at tip of upper side with a pencil of very long 
yellow hair, capable of fan like expansion. Tibia aborted, the epiphy- 
sis small, the process well developed and covering the basal joint of 
tarsi, concealing also a mass of specialized scales. The tarsi have the 
basal joint very long, the others normal. in the female the fore legs 
are normal. The wings are large, the primaries trigonate, with some- 
what produced or rectangular apices and oblique, evenly curved outer 
margin. 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 55 


Two species have been described in this genus, referred in my eata- 
logue to Herminia. Tn substituting Mr. Grote’s genus for these species 
and omitting Herminia altogether from the list of our genera, L have 
been decided by the lack of European material and the present diffi- 
culty in getting at the type of the genus out of the mass of European 
works that are not conveniently accessible to me here. 

Lederer defines Herminia as being like Zanclognatha, but with the 
palpi different, and he makes three sections: the first with pectinated 
male antenne, furnished with a knotted thickening in the center and 
the fore legs with brushes of hair, including H. erinalis, H. gryphalis, 
and H. cribralis; the second with antennwe as before, buf the fore legs 
without pencils of hair, including /H. tentacularis; the third with the 
male antennie having lateral bristles only, without thickening at the 
middle, and no statement concerning the fore legs, H. derivalis being 
the sole species. 

Guenée makes his genus Herminia comprise species of Zanclognatha 
as well as C. morbidalis of the present series and the Herminia of Led- 
erer, refusing to consider any of the genera separated as valid. Mr. 
Grote in 1875 analyzed the European species and genera! and con- 
eluded that H. tentacularis should be considered as type, and if this is 
to be followed we have no species referable to Herminia, because none 
of our forms have pectinated antennie thickened near the middle, with- 


_ out modified fore tibize in the male, combined with the peeuliar palpal 


structure. In view of my inability to study the European forms at 
present, I have accepted Mr. Grote’s conclusions, and hence his genus, 
Chytolita. 

The two species referred here differ mainly in size, C. petrealis being 
the smaller. In the very large series before me I am unable to find a 
single constant difference in maculation, and the color of C. petrealis 
can only be said to be darker in a general way. The difference in the 
palpi pointed out by Mr. Grote is also inconstant, though in C. petre- 
alis more specimens have them straight than is the case in C. mor- 
bidalis, and the latter may be said to have a tendency to have them 
curved upward. The difference in size, on the other hand, seems to 
be constant, and it is accompanied in C. petrealis by a more than pro- 
portionate difference in the antennie, where the lateral bristles are 
much weaker, and in the fore legs, where the member is much smaller 
than in C. morbidalis. 

There is a hardly marked difference in the male genitalia, which will 
be described under the specific headings. 


ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES OF CHYTOLITA. 
Size larger, average 32 mm.; color paler; fore leg of male proportionately 
LA eee) Paes te Oth SS ee eT. 5) Sek oe ewido. oy ttos 42's .MORBIDALIS: 
Size smaller, average 27 mm. ; color darker; fore leg of male half the size 
CETL DALLES eae eee eke I oat Topco i oe sia aidan coe 2-2-8 PETREALIS. 


! Bull. Butf. Soc. Nat. Sci., I, 39, 1873. 


56 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


Chytolita morbidalis, Guenée. 
1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 56, pl. 6, fig. 3, Herminia. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus. Heterocera, XVI, 103, Herminia. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., 1V, 96, Herminia. 
1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 309, Chytoliia. 
1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., I, 39, Chylolita. 
1880. Coquillett, Canadian Entomologist, XII, 44, larva. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 581, Herminia. 

Ground color luteous gray with more intense yellow powderings. 
Head and thorax concolorous. Primaries with the median lines single, 
usually distinet, broad, sometimes a little diffuse. Transverse anterior 
line outwardly bent on the costa, thence nearly upright or only a little 
irregular or Somewhat outcurved in the interspaces. Transverse pos- 
terior line widely and very evenly outcurved over the cell, much less 
incurved below; even or a little marked on the veins. Subterminal 
line a series of blackish dots or small spots, followed by indefinite 
paler marks. <A slender, interrupted black terminal line. Orbicular 
wanting. Reniform always evident, usually distinet, sometimes prom- 
inent; nearly upright, moderate in size, subkidney shaped, yellowish 
to blackish, sometimes annulate with black scales. The transverse 
posterior line is sometimes inwardly diffuse, and sometimes the outer 
portion of the median space is markedly darker. Secondaries paler, 
more powdery, with a vague, incomplete, dusky extra median line and 
a pale, often irregular, also incomplete, subterminal line, which is 
preceded by a blackish shading. Beneath, with coarse ocherous pow: 
derings, a broad, variably distinct median line, a less evident, often 
obsolete, pale outer line, and on secondaries a dusky discal lunule. 

Expanse of wings, 28 to 37 mm. = 1.15 to 1.50 inches. 

Hapirat.—Nova Scotia, southward to Virginia; Central States, 
June and July. 

This species varies little except in the distinctness of the reniform 
and the relative prominence of the median lines. It is common 
throughout its range and readily started up during the day, while 
coming freely to light and to sugar. The sexual peculiarities of 
antenne and fore legs have been already sufficiently described. 

The harpes of the genitalia of the male have a slender, membranous 
upper prolongation, which is squared at the tip, and a stout, very 
strongly chitinized, pointed process, inferiorly shorter than the upper 
part, the intervening space roundedly excavated. 


Chytolita petrealis, Grote. 
1880. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, XII, 219, Chytolita. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 381, Herminia. 

Ground color luteous gray, more or less black powdered. Head and 
thorax concolorous. Primaries varying in tint, sometimes almost 
smoky; median lines usually defined and always traceable, though 
sometimes obscured. The ordinary lines and marks are in all essen- 
tials like those of C. morbidalis, save that they are less even, the 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. Bf 


transverse anterior more outcurved, the transverse posterior fie- 
quently denticulate. The reniform tends to become entirely black; 
but this 1s a variable feature. In all other particulars the description 
of C. morbidalis applies. 

Expanse of wings, 25 to 31 mm. = 0.92 to 1.24 inches. 

HABITAT.—Canada to British Columbia, south to Delaware, west to 
South Dakota. June and July. 

The relation of this species to C. morbidalis has been already stated. 
As a whole, it is distinetly smaller and darker in ground color. There 
is also a smoky suffusion of the primaries in many cases, and a less 
marked definition of the ordinary lines. Yet some specimens are 
exactly like C. morbidalis in all save size. With a series of more than 
fifty specimens at hand, I find none that I consider as doubtful, even 
where equals in size, though I confess myself unable to define the 
specific characters more accurately than I have done. 

The genitalia of the male agree in all essentials with those of C. 
morbidalis, but the membraneous prolongation of harpes is rounded at 
the tip, the inferior corneous process has a curved point and is more 
Irregular. 

Where the two occur together the species is not so common as @. 
morbidalis, but it is less frequent southward, and I have received. it 
trom South Dakota without any examples of C. morbidalis. 


Genus BLEPTINA, Guenée. 
1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 66. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 119. 

Head rather prominent, though not large, with a pointed tuft between 
the antenne. Eyes prominent, globose, naked. Ocelli small, situated 
close to the compound eye, rather well removed from the base of the 
antenne. Tongue long and strong. Antenne rather long, in the female 
simple, with small lateral ciliations; in the male they are either furnished 
with longer lateral bristles, with or without other ciliations, or are 
roughly scaled only, without special modification at basal third in either 
case. Palpi long, rather closely scaled, up and back curved, sickle- 
shaped, the third joint pointed and not much shorter than the second. 
Body moderate, more robust in the female; abdomen quite slender and 
considerably exceeding anal angle of secondaries in the male; more 
robust, scarely exceeding the secondaries in the female. The legs are 
long and stout with the usual spurs-of the middle and posterior pair. 
The anterior legs of the male are modified. The coxa is quite stout 
with rather a sparse clothing of specialized hair toward the tip. Tro- 
chanter normal], not elongated. Femur unusually long, untufted. ‘Tibia 
very short, but with a very long process, which covers a pencil of yellow 
or blackish hair. The first tarsal joint is long and stout, equaling in 
length the tibial process, and the other joints are normal in length. 
Wings proportionate; venation normal. Primaries elongate, very nar 
row at base, in the male set well back on the thorax; the costa some- 


58 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


what concave, the apex pointed, prominent, and the outer margin 
obliquely rounded; in the female the wings are broader, the costa not 
depressed, sometimes even a little arched. 

This genus is fairly well marked by the characters given. The simply 
ciliate antennal structure without even a tuft of hait at basal third is 
quite unusual, and this, with the very distinctive wing form, makes it 
readily recognizable. Its nearest ally is Tetanolita, in which the male 
antenne and the wing form only are different. 

Three species are referred to the genus; two of them, 2. caradrinalis 
and 2B. medialis, decidedly variable forms; the other, B. inferior, fairly 
constant within my experience. 

They differ structurally, yet may be easily confused, small forms of 
Bb. caradrinalis frequently doing duty for B. inferior. In Bb. caradri- 
nalis the markings are always fairly obvious and usually, distinet; the 
reniform is often dusky or blackish, the median shade is obvious, and 
the size is larger than any B. inferior I have ever seen. The male 
antennie are furnished with lateral bristles. B. inferior is smaller, as its 
name linports, more evenly gray in color, Somewhat wider winged, with 
the markings scarcely traceable, and the reniform not black marked in 
any specimen seen by me. The male antennze lack the lateral bristles 
on the joints, the ciliations scarcely as prominent even as in the female: 
but there is a rather evident serration and a somewhat marked covering 
of coarse scales. 

B. medialis resembles B. caradrinalis in maculation yet more closely 
in some cases, but is of the size of inferior. The male antenne differ 
obviously, the longer lateral bristles being reenforced by distinct and 
numerous ciliations which at once distinguish the species. In macula. 
tion the ordinary spots are usually present and distinguished by a 
broad, diffuse margin, the center, even in the orbicular, pale. This 
latter character is distinctive when it is visible. Sometimes this spot 
is wanting, however, and then it becomes difficult to distinguish the 
forms except by the size and general habitus. 

ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES OF BLEPTINA. 
Markings usually obvious; the ordinary spots distinct. 
Size larger, average 28 mm.; antennie of male with moderate lateral bristles, 
CARADRINALIS. 
Size smaller, average 23 mm.; antennie of male with longer and stouter lateral 


bristles, reenforced by numerous ciliations -...........-...---.-MEDIALIS. 
Markings obsolete, ordinary spots small or feebly marked; antenn:e of male ciliated 
merely; size small vaverare. 23min. sess 5 see eee. eee ae eee INFERIOR. 


Bleptina caradrinalis, Gnuenée. 


1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 67, Bleptina. 

1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 120, Bleptina. 

1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 93, Bleptina. 

1878. Grote, Bull. U. 8. Geol. Surv., III, 799, Bleptina. 
cloniasalis, Walker. 

1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Hetorocera, XVI, 105, Herminia. 

1877. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, IX, 29, pr. syn. 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS —SMITH. 59 


Ground color a bluish gray, varying toward clay yellow, and with 
more or less abundant black powderings. Head and thorax concolorous. 
Primaries varying in shade, in the relative amount of powderings and 
in the distinctness of the maculation. Basal line marked on the costa, 
Transverse anterior line single, blackish, more or less outcurved, irregu- 
lar, angulated or outeurved in the interspaces, rarely complete, and 
often merely traceable. Transverse posterior line single, crenulated, 
as a whole quite evenly bisinuate, though varying in the direction of a 
single outcurve over the cell, without a corresponding incurve on the 
submedian interspace. The line varies also in distinetiveness, and is 
sometimes reduced toa series of venular dots. Subterminal line always 
distinct, often prominent, yellowish, even, a little outwardly bent below 
the middle, preceded by a more or less distinct, often prominent, black- 
ish or brown shading and followed by a similar but less prominent, 
often obsolete, dusky shading which sometimes darkens the entire ter- 
minal space. 

A series of venular black terminal dots. A rigid or somewhat sinu- 
ate, broad, dark or blackish median shade band obliquely crosses the 
outer part of the median space, involving the reniform. Orbicular 
punetiform, small, varying from yellow to black. WReniform varying 
from a narrow yellow lunule to a prominent black kidney-shaped spot 
of moderate size. When the mark is yellow it incloses a small black 
dot inferiorly. Secondaries paler, often a dirty whitish gray or yellow, 
with a vague dusky lunule, a fairly marked dusky median line, a pale 
subterminal line often marked by darker preceding or following shades, 
and a series of more or less evident dark or blackish terminal spots. 
Beneath, varying from luteous to smoky, more or less powdery, with a 
dark diseal lunule, a dusky median line, and a pale subterminal line. 
All these features are variable; in the pale specimens the median line 
is best marked and the subterminal pale line is often obscure; while in 
dark specimens the pale, often yellow, subterminal line is prominent, 
and the median line is wanting on one or both wings. 

Expanse of wings, 20 to 30 mm. =1 to 1.20 inches. 

HABITAT.—Canada to British Columbia, to Texas, to Arizona, New 
Mexico, Colorado. Texas, in April, May, June; New York, June and 
July; Delaware, Kansas, and Colorado, in June. 

The species is as common as it is widely distributed and as variable 
as it is common. The difference in wing form between the sexes has 
been alluded to, and in addition the females are usually more evenly 
colored, with the ordinary maculation less evident than in the male. 
The yellow subterminal line is the most prominent feature in most 
instances and it is often sharply defined by distinct preceding and fol- 
lowing dark shadings. The median lines are rarely prominent, and 
not often completely defined. The transverse anterior varies in the 
direction of obsolescence and in the amount of irregularity. The 
transverse posterior varies from crenulate to a series of venular dots. 





60 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


A distinctive and usually quite marked feature is the broad median 
shade, and frequently the reniform will be black and form the most 
conspicuous feature in the wing appearance. 

The distinctive structures of the male antenne and fore legs have 
been already described so far as essential. 


Bleptina medialis, new species. 


Ground color bluish gray over luteous brown, more or less black 
powdered. Head and thorax concolorous, immaculate. Primaries 
varying in tint. Basal line traceable in all specimens before me, very 
distinct and black in some cases. Transverse antenvor line nearly 
upright, irregularly outcurved in the interspaces, variably evident but 
traceable in all specimens before me. Transverse posterior line slen- 
der, indistinct, sometimes obsolete, irregular, but hardly crenulated; 
in course as a whole outcurved over the cell and a little ineurved 
inferiorly. Subterminal line pale, yellowish, even, a little outceurved 
centrally, defined by dark marginal lines on both sides or set in a dark 
terminal shade which extends from the middle of the subterminal space 
to the outer margin, <A series of black terminal dots, which are some. 
times wanting. Median shade line narrow, brownish, nearly parallel 
with the transverse posterior line, not diffuse nor prominent, and some- 
times wanting, Ordinary spots marked in most of the specimens. 
Orbicular round, pale-dotted centrally, the defining ring brown or 
blackish and quite broad. Reniform marked in all the specimens, 
upright, consisting of concolorous or yellowish central line with a 
broad black or brownish defining ring. Secondaries smoky to blackish, 
immaculate in dark forms, in paler examples with an extra median 
dusky and a pale subterminal line. Beneath, dull smoky, powdery, 
with common extra median dusky and subterminal pale lines. These 
are always feebly marked and more or less obsolete on the primaries. 

Expanse of wings, 21 to 24 mm. =0.85 to 0.95 inch. 

HABITAT.—Semitropical Florida. 

Four specimens are before me, equally divided as to sex. One male 
was collected by Mr. E. A. Schwarz, at Cocoanut Grove, and is from 
the collection of the United States National Museum; the others were 
collected by Mr. Palm in the same region, but the exact locality I do 
not have. 

The species is a well-marked one in the antennal structure of the 
male, and three of the four specimens are distinct by the dusky immace- 
ulate secondaries, by the contrasting blackish outer pertion of pri- 
maries, and by the pale centered orbicular. The fourth specimen, a 
female, resembles some forms of B. caradrinalis so closely as to make 
doubt possible. It is smaller, ho-vever, and the vestiture is closer, more 
smooth, the median shade not at all traceable, and the transverse poste- 
rior. line is not crenulated. The species will probably be found to 
extend into the West Indies. 


eit nina 


A REVISION Of THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 61 


Bleptina inferior, Grote 


1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soe., 1V, 94, Bleptina. 

Darker and of a different hue compared with B. caradrinatis. The 
reniform is creamy pale, as is the orbicular, subobsoletely black ringed, 
and shows an inferior black included dot. The markings of its con- 
gener are reproduced by this smaller species, but less distinetly. The 
color of the primaries is of amore bluish and darker gray, and they are 
more uniformly colored, hardly darker shaded terminally. The second- 
aries are much darker, almost wholly blackish; the lines imperceptible 
or obsolete. Beneath, both wings blackish, the subterminal line alone 
barely perceivable. 

Expanse of wings, 20 to 25 mm. = 0.80 to 1 inch. 

HABITAT.—Southern States to Texas; May, August. and October. 

I have already referred to the fact that this species has been mis- 
taken in collections, and | am afraid [ am responsible for some of the 
errors. This has led me to give what [ now believe to be too great a 
geographic range to this species in my catalogue, and Lam inclined to 
doubt whether it occurs in the Middle States at all. The comparative 
description above given is Mr. Grote’s original characterization, and 
points out the essential features of the ornamentation. The same 
characters separate it also from 6. medialis. Within my experience 
the species varies little. To the quite unusual antennal structure ot 
the male | have already referred. The .fore legs are in all essentials 
like those of B. caradrinalis, but less developed, and proportionately 
shorter. — 

Genus TETANOLITA, Grote. 


1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., LV, 305. 


Head moderate or rather small, front with an inter-anteunal pointed 
tuft. Eyes prominent, globose. Ocelli distinct, situated well back, 
close to the compound eye, and well removed trom the base of the 
antenne. Tongue moderate. Palpi long, curved upward, and a little 
flattened, quite closely scaled, third joint long and pointed. Antenne 
moderate in length, in the female simple, in the male with lateral bris- 
tles, varying in the species, and at basal third with a tuft of hair which 
is variably developed and covers two very slightly dilated joints. Body 
slight, abdomen slender, cylindrical, reaching to or somewhat exceed- 
ing the anal angle of secondaries; in the female, pointed at tip and 
somewhat conic. Legs long and rather slender, closely scaled, the 
usual spurs of the middle and hind tibie long and unequal. In the 
male the fore legs are quite strongly modified. The coxa is long, quite 
stout, with a peculiar excavation or emargination at the outer side at 
base. The trochanter is about one-third the length of the femur and 
combined with the latter a trifle longer than the coxa, The femur is 
furnished with a rather short pencil of hair attached at base, capable 
of fanlike expansion, and a fringiug of specialized scales laterally near 


62 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


tip. The tibia is reduced to a huge process which covers a mass of 
specialized scales, and a pencil of dark hair. The tarsi are long, very 
weak, slender, and hardly functional. The wings vary somewhat in 
width, being comparatively elongate, narrow and obtuse in 7. munesalis, 
more trigonate, wider, and with a marked,apex in 7. Aoridana, and with 
an altogether broader, more ample, and frail appearance in 7. palligera. 
In the latter species the outer margin is somewhat marked at the middle 
when the fringes are defective. In all the species the accessory cell is 
wanting and veins 7 to 10 are stalked, vein 10 arising very close to the 
base of the stalk. It is altogether likely, though,none of my specimens 
show it, that the accessory cell may be sometimes present. 

The three species referred to this genus are closely allied and yet 
very distinct. All the essential structural details are similar, and yet 
in minor points they differ markedly. The difference in wing form 
between 7. mynesalis and T. palligera is at first sight very great, but 
specimens of 7. floridana are completely intermediate. In the strue- 
_ture of the male fore legs the species agree remarkably. In the strue- 
ture of the male antennie the agreement is only in the type. In 
T. mynesalis the joints are rather even, cylindrical, not marked, fur- 
nished with moderate, slender, lateral bristles, and with little tufts of 
fine hair inferiorly arising from small tubercles. The tuft is quite long 
and marked. 

In 7. foridana the joints are much more robust and shorter, marked, 
alinost subserrate, with coarse scaly clothing. ‘The lateral bristles are 
hardly more prominent, but the tuftings inferiorly consist of decidedly 
longer hair. 

In T. palligera the joints are yet more marked above the tutt which 
in this species is much reduced; the scaly vestiture forms two elevated 
rings on each joint and the lateral bristles.are much.reduced in length 
and thickness. 

In color 7. mynesalis is usually smoky to blackish over a somewhat 
luteous base, which occasionally appears quite distinetly. 

T. floridana is luteous, with smoky powderings which darken the 
terminal portion of both wings. 

T. palligera is paler, with brown powderings arranged much as in 
the preceding species, but frequently with a more yellow suffusion. 

In maculation the three species agree most remarkably, so a descrip- 
tion of one will practically answer for all. 


ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES OF TETANOLITA. 


Color smoky to blackish; male antenna with joints not marked, lateral bristles 
MOMOTALEH ese cael: Beebe wocee pee hes eee eee ee ae ee eee MYNESALIS. - 
Color luteous; male antenna with joints subserrate, lateral bristles well marked, 
FLORIDANA. 

Color luteous; male antenna with joints serrate above the much-reduced tuft, the 
Lateral soTUSbL|sksrivellll Sse tees ete ere este a ape eee ee PALLIGERA. 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 63 


Tetanolita mynesalis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XIX, 860, Bleptina. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 44, 389, Tetunolita. 
lixalis, Grote. 
1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soe., LV, 306, Tetanolita. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 44, 339, pr. syn. 

Silky blackish. Primaries with a faint purplish reflection. Trans- 
verse anterior line indistinet, linear, darker than the ground color of 
“the wing, medially with a rounded outward inclination. Reniform 
clear pale-yellowish in both my specimens, without included dots, indis- 
tinctly darker ringed, contrasung. Transverse posterior line linear, 
dark, finely dentate, indicated on costa by pale scales; a little projected 
opposite the cell. Subterminal line distinetly indicated by small whitish 
lunulated included dots, a little outwardly projected over median nery- 
ules. A very fine terminal line; fringes concolorous, neatly interrupted 
with pale scales. The neat ornamentation may be clearly seen against 
the almost uniform blackish ground of the primaries, with attention. 
Hind wings much paler, smoky-whitish, with two darker median lines 
approximating toward internal margin, and a faint discal mark; ter- 
minal lie and frimges as on primaries. Beneath blackish, paling 
toward internal margins, with distinef discal marks and double, neatly 
and minutely dentated transverse lines. Head and appendages, tho- 
rax and legs outwardly blackish, concolorous; abdomen paler. Tarsi 
dotted with pale scales. 

Expanse of wings, 20 to 23 mm.==0.80 to 0.90 inch. 

HABIraT.— Middle, Central, and Southern States; Texas in March, 
May, and October; Llimois in July. 

The species 1s not common, except in the southern portion of its 
rapge. being most often received from Texas. It varies little, except 
in the distinctness of the maculation, the form described by Mr. Grote 
bemg a well-marked type which is somewhat less common. Usually 
the yellow reniform 1s quite obvious, but sometimes even this disap- 
pears. A point not mentioned by Mr. Grote is the fact that the black- 
ish abdomen is usually narrowly pale annulate. 


Tetanolita floridana, new species. 


Ground color a pale luteous, with variably distinet smoky powder- 
ings. Head concolorous with the darker, the thorax with the paler 
parts of the wing; abdomen somewhat more gray, the edges of the seg- 
ments paler ringed. Primaries with the markings ill defined, more or 
less darkened over the costal region, the outer part of subterminal and 
all the terminal space dusky. Basal line faintly indicated in some 
specimens. Transverse anterior line single, blackish, a large outcurve 
m the submedian interspace, else nearly upright. Transverse posterior 
line slender, dusky, crenulated, oblique, nearly paraliel with the. outer 
margin. Subterminal line pale, more or less mterrupted, parallel with 


64 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


the outer margin or a little sinuated, emphasized by the smoky shade 
through which it runs. <A series of black terminal lunules, fringes 
pale, cut with smoky brown. There is a diffuse, oblique, broad, smoky, 
median shade, which is variably evident and usually involves the reni- 
form. Orbicular a small yellow dot, which is never prominent and 
often obsolete. Reniform a small yellowish line or Junule, sometimes 
almost obscured by the dusky median shade. Secondaries gray or 
whitish at base, darkening to smoky or blackish outwardly; with an 
extra median, rather even, darker line, and a pale, irregularly denticu- 
late, subterminal line, through the darker outer region. <A series of 
black terminal lunules. Beneath gray, black powdered, darkening out- 
wardly; with a more or less complete dusky extra median line and a 
more evident, pale, subterminal line, repeating the upper side on both 
wings. A more or less marked discal lunule, sometimes obsolete on 
the prymaries. 

Expanse of wings, 20 to 21 mm,=0.80 to 0.85 inch. 

Hapirat.—Florida, Archer, in March and April; Texas, in March. 

Both sexes are at hand, and are similar in appearance. It has been 
impossible for me to find a single permanent difference in marking 
between this species and the two others. Itis paler than 7. livalis and 
darker than 7. palligera, wider Winged than the former, narrower than 
the latter. The structural differences have been already noted, and 
with both sexes at hand no trouble need be found in recognizing the 
species. It is probably not rare in its range, which, thus far, is con- 
fined to Floridaand Texas. It will probably be found in the other Gulf 
States. This is the species, a specimen of which I rather doubtfully 
referred to 7. palligera when deseribing the latter species, and whose 
distinctness is again suggested in Bulletin 44, United States National 
Museum, 385. 

The types are in the collection of the United States National Museum. 


Tetanolita palligera Smith. 


1884. Smith, Bull. BkIn. Entomological Soc., VII, 6, Heterogramma. 

Ground color a dirty powdery luteous, with a more yellowish sutfu- 
sion in some specimens. Head and thorax concolorous, the abdomen 
somewhat paler, and with rather feebly marked paler wings. Primaries 
with the markings all obscured, the subterminal line which runs 
through a darker terminal space the only distinct feature of the wing. 
The markings are like those described for the previous species, 
and the present differs mainly in its larger size, paler ground, and more 
obscure maculation. 


HABrrat.—California: Napa County; Panamint Valley in April; 
Knightly Valley. 

Five specimens are before me, all of them from the National Museum 
collection. Others are in the Edwards collection in the American 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 65 


Museum of Natural History. The specimen from Panamint Valley 
comes nearest to the Floridian species in appearance; but the more 
ample wings will suffice to distinguish the form, even from the most 
similar of the other. The structural characters previously described 
are, of course, decisive whenever a male is at hand. In somewhat 
rubbed specimens, in which the fringes are defective, the outer margin 
of the primaries seems slightly angulated at the middle, and this must 
be my excuse for referring the species to Heterogramma iu the first 
description from somewhat scant material. It is probable that in its 
range the species will be found not uncommon. 


Genus RENTA, Guenée. 
1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 80. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus. Heterocera, XVI, 147. 
1877. Grote, Bull. U. 8. Geol. Sury., III, 119. 

Head moderate, sometimes quite prominent. Eyes large, naked, 
globose. Ocelli distinct, set well back from the base of the antenne 
and close to the compound eye. Front with a pointed interantennal 
tuft. Tongue moderate. Palpisomewhat variable, laterally compressed, 
directed straight forward, obliquely ascending or even recurved, sickle- 
shaped; the second joint longest, clothed on the upper side with upright 
scales, sometimes evenly, sometimes massed toward the middle, making 
it seem higher. The terminal joint varies considerably in length, 
always set into the second at a small angle, and this also quite 
usually clothed with upright scales, which are longest at the middle, 
giving the joint a triangular appearance when viewed from the side. 
Antenne long or moderate; in the female simple, with fine lateral cilia- 
tions; in the male with distinct, though not very long, lateral bristles. 
Beyond the middle, in this sex, is a prominent pointed tuft of hair on 
the outer side, which conceals an elongated curved joint, which in turn 
protects a tuft or pencil of specialized hair. Beyond this point the 
joints of the antennie become shorter, somewhat serrate, the lateral 
bristles shorter, and there is a very distinct tendency to a curling or 
coiling of the tip. Body moderate, abdomen slender, cylindrical, 
somewhat exceeding the anal angle of the secondaries. The legs are 
long and moderately stout, the tibia with the normal spurs. In the 
male the fore legs are modified, the modification confined to the tibia 
and tarsi. The tibia is very short, anteriorly produced into a long 
process which covers the first tarsal joint, concealing specialized scales, 
but no tufts or pencils of hair. The wings are large; the primaries 
trigonate, pointed at the apex, the outer margin oblique or arquate, 
considerable’variation existing in this feature. The venation is some- 
what abnormal, lacking the accessory cell in all the species and in all 
the specimens examined, though I would not be surprised, from what I 
have seen, to find exceptional specimens with a more or less perfectly 
developed accessory cell. In most instances veins 7 to 10 are from one 





stalk; but occasionally 7 is free. 
7862—No, 48 5 


66 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


This genus is an extremely interesting one. There are a number of 
species, and while they belong together, without doubt, there is a con- 
siderable amount of variation. In all, however, the peculiarity of the 
male antenna is marked, and in general the wing form is similar. In 
the palpi there is a great range of variation, and while the type found 
in Herminia is controlling, yet in R. centralis the upright scales are 
not prominent, and we get a form dangerously like Tetanolita, which 
this species also resembles in color, in markings, and to some extent 
in wing form. In &. salusalis (breviostralis) a sexual peculiarity is 
found in the male in the form of a truncated tuft or brush of hairlike 
scales on the upper and inner side. The structure of the male fore leg 
is practically alike in all the species. Coxa, trochanter, and femur are 
normal, or nearly so; the tibia is short, but produced into a long 
process anteriorly, without covering any tufts or pencils of hair, and 
therefore correspondingly narrow. 

All the described species are known to me, and I have found two 
others not yet characterized among the material before me. FR. salusalis, 
better known as R. brevirostralis, differs at once from all the other 
species by the short palpi of the male, which also have a truncated 
tuft of hair on the upper side of the middle joint, and have the terminal 
joint short, the entire member oblique. The primaries are distinctly 
pointed at the apex, and the outer margin is oblique and long. In 
color the male is pale Juteous, and the ordinary lines are punctiform 
or crenulated. 

The remainder of the species have the palpi longer in both sexes, 
without special modification in the male, and they separate into two 
distinct series on the character of the transverse posterior line, as 
pointed out by Mr. Grote. In the majority of the species it is irregular, 
dentate, crenulate, punctiform, or otherwise marked; but in two species, 
Rh. flavipunctalis and Rk. pulverosalis, it is even, pale, and preceded by 
a more or less marked, also even, dusky line. 

Of the first series, R. discoloralis is much the largest, exceeding in 
size indeed all others of the genus, and is thus recognizable by that 
character alone. It is also much the most variable, rivaling Zanclog- 
natha levigata in its protean changes, and we find every gradation from 
a uniform tint, in which none of the markings are traceable, to a strongly 
contrasting type, in which all the lines are prominent and all the spaces 
discolorous. A prominent feature is found in the nearly continuous 
subterminal line, marked by both a preceding and a following darker 
shading in most instances. 

The other species of this section are decidedly smaller, never varia- 
ble, and again divided on wing form. R. fraternalis, R. sobrialis, and 
R. larvalis have longer, more pointed fore wings, the apex marked, the 
outer margin quite oblique and with a little tendency to incurve below 
the tip of the wing. A. clitosalis and R. factiosalis have the fore wings 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 67 


shorter, less trigonate, broader toward base, the outer margin much 
less oblique, and the apices scarcely rectangular and not in the least 
pointed. 

R. fraternalis varies from pale luteous in the male to light-red brown 
in the female. The appearance of the male is very suggestive of a 
small R. salusalis (brevirostralis); but the palpi show the difference at 
a glance, being straight and long without sexual modification. The 
female differs markedly from the male in color, this sexual difference 
recurring in this genus only in &. salusalis, and the maculation, which 
in the male is quite distinet, is almost lost in the female, in which the 
subterminal line alone remains marked. 

R. sobrialis (restrictalis) is smoky over luteous, varying to blackish, 
with the maculation obscure, and A. larvalis resembles it except in 
size, being somewhat larger and in having a somewhat paler, more 
purplish tinge to the primaries. According to Mr. Grote, “ It will be 
easy to distinguish R. restrictalis from R. larvalis, with which it agrees 
in ornamentation and general tint, if we observe the greatly shorter 
and recurved labial palpi of the female. In R. larvalis the female 
labial palpi are extended forward. and are as long as in FR. brevirostra- 
lis. The antennus is shorter from the base to the tuft in R. restrictalis 
thanin RF. larvalis ; the form is narrower, the general color darker, more 
glossy.” Both the antennal and palpal characters pointed out are 
unreliable, and while they hold in perhaps a considerable proportion of 
cases, yet I have seen instances in which they were exactly reversed, 
and the examination of the large series of specimens of all species 
now before me shows that there is a sufticiently great range of varia- 
tion, especially in the palpi, to render their use for specific characters 
at least unsafe. 

R. clitosalis (centralis) is another smoky, rather more blackish spe- 
cies, but the wing form already mentioned separates it from those imme- 
diately preceding. The palpi are more evenly clothed than usual in 
the genus and are more or less sickle shaped in both sexes. The spe- 
cies strongly resembles Tetanolita mynesalis on a much larger scale, 
and is quite different from any other of its congeners. 

R. factiosalis (plenilinealis) agrees with fh. clitosalis in wing form, 
but differs in all other characters. It is leather brown in color, vary- 
ing to a deeper shade, with more or less black powdering. The macu- 
lation is variably distinct, and sometimes the spaces contrast more or 
less, varying to an almost uniform leather brown with the maculation 
obscured, as in the form named R. alutalis by Mr, Grote. 

The remaining species are those already separated off on the even, 
pale, transverse posterior line of the primaries, and they are closely 
- related. 

R. flavipunctalis is a well marked species, and the maculation is in 
most cases distinct, the transverse posterior line prominent and con- 
tinued somewhat more faintly across the secondaries. 


68 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


R. pulverosalis is obscurely marked, altogether more frail, with 
longer palpi, more slender antennie, and more pointed primaries. The 
wings are entirely obscured by smoky powderings, and the markings 
of the primaries are traced with difficulty, while on the secondaries 
they are often scarcely obvious. 


ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES OF RENIA. 
\ 


1. Palpi of male short, oblique; middle joint with a specialized tuft or brush of hair; 
terminal joint SHOLbL = foo). sees eae ee eee eee eee eee ae 2 ALU Sua 
Palpi long in both sexes; without specialized tuft of hair; terminal joint at least 
INODETALS . hoch ose ae a = eee SS eee ele ee ae eee eee eee eee escent 2. 

2. Transverse posterior line more or less denticulate, narrow, blackish, not accom- 


Transverse posterior line pale, even, preceded by a narrow, even, dusky line -. 8. 
3. Primaries trigonate, with the apex somewhat produced acute; outer margin long, 


alittlerexcavabed below, alldavery: Ob lV Ie ce mae ers me ee eee ae 4, 
Primaries shorter and broader; apex rectangular; outer margin not excavated, 
slrorter, amd: omllsys alt b leo) lc ule ee ete artes ee ree re rere fife 

4, Size large; subterminal line distinct, outwardly angulated at its middle, preceded 
or followed, or both, by a dusky defining shade .....-...-.-----.DISCOLORALIS. 

Size moderate or small; subterminal line punctiform, preceded by variably dis- 
ATC Tap Yd © spade as tpn oat Lea CS by 

5. Color lutcous toleabher browimlss sess see ee ee eee ee FRATERNALIS. 
Color smoky or gray over luteous ---------------------. (a ciieteieieui senate es 6. 
GPUSIZeLSMLALERe\ Esp AIMS C yh O NNN ee er SOBRIALIS. 
SIZE lara Ts HEAP ANUS ie eo) MUTT ee LARVALIS. 

fe Colomamokyoniplackisheese-see see see eee ne bs hel de star ea ee oe CLITOSALIS. 
Color leather brown: towdlubeous ses .5- 2 —s sae See ee eee FACTIOSALIS. 

8. Markings fairly distinct; secondaries crossed by a pale line.--. - VLAVIPUNCTALIS. 
Markings obscure, powdery ; secondaries almost immaculate... ..PULVEROSALIS. 


Renia salusalis, Walker. 


1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 107, Herminia. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 387, Renia. 
brevirostralis, Grote. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 25, Renia. 
1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 309, pl. 1, ff. 91, 92, Renia. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 387, pr. syn. 

Ground color luteous, varying in shade, with black powderings. 
Head and thorax concolorous. Primaries with the markings distinct 
in the male, a little obscure in the female, Basal line punetiform, 
traceable in the specimens before me. Transverse anterior line brown, 
upright, or nearly so, a little irregular. Transverse posterior line 
crenulated, rather evenly bisinuate as a whole, and very oblique, 
nearly parallel with the outer margin. The line is sometimes reduced 
to a series of venular dots. Subterminal line irregular, pale, obscure, 
marked by blackish preceding spots varying in number and distinct- 
ness, and sometimes followed by less evident marks of the same char- 
acter. A series of black venular dots. <A diffuse, oblique, brown 
median shade becomes evident below the reniform and often con- 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 69 


spicuous at the inner margin. Orbicular marked as a small, clear 
yellow spot, which is sometimes lost. Reniform upright, narrow, some- 
what constricted centrally, yellow, with a black dot at each extremity. 
Secondaries paler, but rather more smoky, with a distinct dusky extra 
median line continuous with the transverse posterior of primaries, 
and a pale subterminal line continuous with that of the primaries, 
and sometimes marked by darker shadings, and, indeed, as a rule the 
wings darken outwardly, relieving the line somewhat. A series of 
black terminal dots, sometimes forming an interrupted terminal line. 
Beneath with ocherous powderings; all wings with a discal mark, a 
brown extra median, a pale subterminal and a blackish terminal line, 
the latter interrupted and somewhat punctiform. 

Expanse of wings, 20 to 32 mm.— 0.80 to 1.25 inches, 

HaApsitTatT.—EKastern, Middle, and Central States; Georgia, Alabama, 
Colorado. 

The essential characters of the species have been pointed out in the 
introductory remarks. The male seems to have the power of expand- 
ing in every direction the palpal tuft. The paipi of the female are nor- 
mal and quite long. In this sex the tendency is to a more reddish 
ground color and less evident maculation. In asmall male from Georgia 
the reniform is prominently black and the other markings are reduced 
and punctiform. 

The other sexual characters of antenne and fore legs agree with those 
of the genus. 

Renia discoloralis, Guenée. 
1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 82, Renia. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 24, Renia. 
fallacialis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 58, Hypena. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 25, pr. syn. 
1893, Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 387. 
generalis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 29, Hypena. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 386, pr. syn. 
thracalis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 109, Herminia. 
1891. Smith, List Lepidoptera, 63, pr. syn. 


Ground color varying from pale luteous to dark brown, always 
powdery. Head and thorax always of the prevailing color. Primaries 
with the subterminal line distinct in most instances, but else varying 
in every possible direction. Basal line evident, broad, brown. ‘Trans- 
verse anterior line outeurved in the interspaces and as a whole a little 
outeurved. Transverse posterior line irregularly dentate and crenate 
and irreguiarly sinuate and inwardly oblique in its general course, 
Subterminal line pale, a little irregular, always with a marked outward 
angle at about the middle, preceded or followed, or both, by a darker 
shade, often more prominent before the angulation. A series of venu- 


70 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


lar terminal dots. ‘There is a broad, oblique, somewhat diffuse median 
shade. Orbicular small, round, yellow. Reniform upright, narrow, 
yellow, with black dots at each extremity, sometimes connected by a 
dark line. Secondaries varying from pale yellowish gray to almost 
black, with a vague dusky median and pale subterminal line and a 
series of blackish terminal lunules. Beneath more coarsely powdery; 
all wings with a discal lunule, a broad, common, brown median line, a 
pale subterminal line, and a series of dark terminal lunules. 

Expanse of wings, 33 to 40 mm. = 1.52 to 1.60 inches. 

HABITAT.—Canada to Virginia; Central States; New York and Dela- 
ware in July; District of Columbia in August. 

The above description applies to an evenly colored specimen in which 
all the maculation is well defined; but as a matter of fact such speci- 
mens are the exception rather than the rule. Very pale and very dark 
specimens tend to an obsolescence of all maculation, and only inter- 
mediate forms are apt to have it evenly defined. Besides this range of 
variation in evenly colored torms, there is a decided tendency, equally 
marked in both sexes in my experience, toward discoloration. The 
median space may be dark and all else contrasting pale, or the opposite 
may be the case, or only one space may be affected, and this 1s as likely 
to be the basal as the terminal. Yet, withal, the character of the 
species changes little, and its size alone will serve for its recognition. 
In the male the palpi are curved; the vestiture of the middle joint is 
therefore longer at the middle than at the base, while in the female the 
palpi are straight and the scales are even. 

The species is quite widely distributed and is not rare. The 
sexual modifications offer nothing out of the common. 


Renia fraternalis, new species. 


Ground color in the male a pale luteous gray; in the female yellowish 
red-brown. Head and thorax concolorous with primaries. Primaries 
in the male with the maculation fairly well marked; in the female the 
subterminal line only is defined in most instances. Basal line indicated 
on the costa. Transverse anterior line single, blackish, irregularly 
outcurved, and outwardly exserted in the interspaces. Transverse 
posterior line finely crenulated, often punctiform, black, nearly parallel 
with the outer margin, or only a little sinuated. Subterminal line pune- 
tiform, a little outwardly bent about the middle, consisting of whitish 
dots set in a more or less marked lead-colored or black shading. A 
series of black terminal dots or marks. A rather narrow, indefined, 
median shade line, visible only below the median vein. Orbicular a 
small yellow dot. Reniform narrow, upright, yellow, with a black dot 
at each extremity. Secondaries somewhat paler than primaries, with 
a dusky median line and a pale subterminal line, which is sometimes 
absorbed in a darker shading which precedes it. Beneath more 
powdery; both wings with discal spots, a usually distinct dusky median 
line, and an (often wanting) pale subterminal line. 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. th 


Expanse of wings, 23 to 27 mm. = 0.90 to 1.08 inches. 

Haprrat.—Florida, Archerin February, Rock Ledge in April; Savan- 
nah, Ga. 

Twelve specimens are before me, showing little variation, but a con- 
stant sexual (lifference in color. The males have, in all cases before me, 
the described markings, though not equally evident, while in all the 
females the subterminal line is the only distinct feature, though the 
reniform is usually very well marked. 

In the male the palpi are a little shorter than they are in the female, 
and are somewhat oblique, and in this sex the wings are also a little 
narrower. 

It is quite certain that this species has been confused in collections, 
the males with &. salusalis and the females either with that species or 
with R. sobrialis, which they resemble in wing form. 

In size the species is much below the average of R. salusalis, and 
equals R. sobrialis, though I have seen some extremely small specimens 
of R. salusalis (20 mm.). 

The species seems not uncommon in its range. 


Renia sobrialis, Walker. 


1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 228, Hypena. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 387, Renia. 
restrictalis, Grote. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 26 and 308, pl. 1, fig. 94, Renia. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 44, 387, pr. syn. 

Ground color smoky brown to blackish, powdery. Head and thorax 
concolorous. Primaries with the maculation obscure. Transverse 
anterior line irregularly outcurved. Transverse posterior line barely 
traceable, punctiform, as a whole nearly parallel with the outer margin. 
Subterminal line pale, slightly irregular, usually interrupted, sometimes 
punctiform, occasionally almost obsolete, marked by a preceding dusky 
shade, which becomes broken into spots when the line is punctiform, 
sometimes appearing as a series of dark, white centered blotches. 
Median line traceable below the median vein in some specimens. A 
series of black terminal dots or marks. Orbicular a small yellow dot 
which is sometimes wanting. Reniform upright, narrow, yellow, with 
more or less obvious black points at the extremities. Secondaries 
scarcely paler than primaries, with a dusky extra-median and a pale 
subterminal line; both barely traceable. Beneath smoky, coarsely 
powdered, with a dark extra-median and pale subterminal line, the 
latter rarely distinct. 

Expanse of wings, 25 to 26 mm. = 0.92 to 1.04 inches. 

HABITAT.—Nova Scotia to Virginia, Central States; District of 
Columbia in August; Colorado in Séptember. 

Mr. Grote gives the expanse as 27 to 28 mm., which is greater than 
any I have seen, and greater than his type specimen in the collection 
of the American Entomological Society. In the specimens before me 


72 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


there is no variation save in the depth of the ground color, and in a 
very slight relative difference in the distinctness of the maculation. 

There is the usual sexual difference in the palpi, those of the male 
being oblique while those of the female are straight. 

I have associated with this species two specimens from Glenwood 
Springs, Colo., which may prove different when larger material is at 
hand, They are much more powdery and seem slighter, yet with prac- 
tically the same markings as in the eastern specimens. 


Renia larvalis, Grote. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 26, Renia. 
1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 303, Renia. 

This in all essentials like R. sobrialis, save that it is paler, more 
luteous, and the maculation rather more distinct. 

Expanse of wings, 28 to 30 mm.=1.12 to 1.20 inches. 

Except the somewhat greater size and somewhat paler color I can 
not find any differences. Mr. Grote makes the size 32 to 54 inmm., which 
is larger than any I have seen, including the type. I think there must 
be an error in Mr. Grote’s measurements of these species. I have had 
no difficulty in keeping these two forms apart in collections, but 
can not find a single feature except size and ground color to separate 
them. The characters pointed out by Mr. Grote are not constant. 
The range of the present species seems to be greater, extending to 
Florida and Texas, but there 1s really no certainty as to which of the 
two species the records refer to. Specimens from Delaware and 
Washington, D. C.,in May, and Florida in March are correct, and raise 
the question whether there may not be a seasonal relation between the 
specimens taken at Washington in May (R. larvalis) and those taken 
in August (2. sobrialis). My material is not sufficient to settle the mat- 
ter finally, and the species are therefore retained as distinct. 


Renia clitosalis, Walker. 


1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, X VI, 108, Herminia. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 44, 388, Renia. 
centralis, Grote. 
oF 


1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 27 and 309, Renia. 
1898. Smith, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 44, 388, pr. syn. 


Very dark smoky brown or blackish, somewhat glossy. Head and 


chorax concolorous. Primaries with the markings faintly traceable at 
best, sometimes almost obsolete, no feature prominent. Transverse 
anterior line a little irregular, oblique. ‘Transverse posterior line 
irregularly denticulate, with an even outeurve or a little drawn in on 
the submedian interspace; followed by a vague paler shade, usually 
marked as a yellowish dot on the costa, and sometimes confined to this. 
Subterminal line punctiform, consisting of small white dots which bend 
outwardly below the middle. Sometimes a more or less undefined 


dite tel teal ti 


on alin te es 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 73 


darker shade emphasizes these dots. <A series of blackish terminal 
lunules. Orbicular a small yellow dot, which is often wanting. Reni- 
form upright, narrow, yellow, with a small black dot at each extremity. 
Secondaries a little paler, with a median darker, an extramedian pale, 
and an interrupted blackish terminal line. The subterminal line is 
quite usually lost, sometimes marked by a darker shading, which per- 
sists when the line which it was meant to define has disappeared. 
Beneath paler, the secondaries more grayish and coarsely powdered. 
All wings with a discal spot, a rather broad, extra median dark shade 
line, and a slender, whitish, subterminal line, which is sometimes a 
little diffuse on the secondaries. 

Expanse of wings 23 to 25 mm. = 0.92 to 1 ineh. 

HABITAT.—Nova Scotia to West Virginia; Central States; New York 
and Washington, D. C., in August. 

This is a fairly well marked species, varying in depth of ground 
color and in the relative indistinctness of the maculation. The body 
structure is comparatively more robust, and the wing form is less 
extended apically than in the last preceding species. I can not find in 
my specimens the sexual difference in the paipi described by Mr. Grote, 
and think it probable that he had associated poor specimens of differ- 
ent species as two sexes, an association which led to my suggestion! 
that this was a small form of &. restrictalis. Good specimens of both 
sexes make it certain that we have a good species in which the palpi 
are alike in male and female, and are also more closely scaled than in 
the other species; approaching Tetanolita very decidedly. The species 
does not seem to be common. : 

Renia factiosalis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus. Heterocera, XVI, 37, Hypena. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 388, Renia. 
plenilinealis, Grote. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV. 99, Renia. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 388, pr. syn. 
alutalis, Grote. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc. IV, 99, Renia. 
1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 309, Renia. 
xround color varying irom luteous to leather brown, more or less 

powdery, sometimes appearing smoky. Head and thorax concolorous. 
Primaries with the inaculation variably distinct, sometimes obscured, 
more usually evident, sometimes contrasting. There is a decided ten- 
dency to discoloration, as in I. discoloralis, but less strongly marked. 
As arule the dusky shade preceding the subterminal line is the most 
marked character. Basal line evident in the costal space. Transverse 
anterior line distinct, sometimes prominent, even or slightly sinuate, 
upright or only a little bent or oblique. Transverse posterior line 
irregular, even over the costal region, irregularly crenulate, sometimes 
punctiform below this point; as a whole nearly parallel with the outer 
margin. Subterminal line only a little paler than the ground color; 





1 Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 388. 


(4 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


but usually defined by a distinct dark preceding shade which some- 
times becomes diffuse, involving the terminal space in whole or in 
part, and occasionally reduces the line to a series of pale dotlets, all 
intermediate forms occurring. A series of blackish terminal lunules, 
sometimes reduced to mere points. Median shade broad, diffuse, upright, 
varying from this to entire absence. Orbicular small, rounded, varying 
from yellow to concolorous, to black. Reniform upright, narrow, paler 
or concolorous, defined by black scales, immaculate, with black points 
which may be connected and form a lunule, or the entire spot may be 
black and contrasting, in such cases somewhat undefined. Seconda- 
ries smoky, varying to fuscous or purply, with a dark median line fol- 
lowed by a paler shade, and a pale subterminal line preceded by a 
dusky shade; in each instance varying to obsolescence. Beneath, 
varying from gray to smoky or brown, powdery, with a variably marked 
median dark and subterminal pale line. 

Expanse of wings, 25 to 28 mm.=0.92 to 1.12 inches. 

HABITAT.—Canada to Virginia, to Colorado. Canada and Washing- 
ton, D. C., in August; Colorado, August, September. 

Of the specimens before me no two are alike, and I know the range of 
variation is greater than even my material indicates. In the line of 
discoloration the tendency seems to be toward a pale basal and sub- 
terminal space; but it may be reversed in a larger series. The most 
conspicuous change occurs in the ordinary spots from yellow to black, 
and I am not at all surprised that Mr. Grote made two species from 
limited material. I have not seen his type, but have seen the speci- 
mens named fk. alutalis in his collection, which do not agree closely 
with his description. From the description, which is quite character- 
istic, I have named specimens fully agreeing with it, and certainly 
referable to R. plenilinealis, of which I have seen the type. 

The sexual difference between the palpi is marked in this species; 
those of the male being oblique and somewbat shorter, while those of 
the female are longer and straight. 


Renia flavipunctalis, Geyer. 


1832. Geyer, Zutraege, IV, 25, figs. 701, 702, Antiblemma. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XIX, 859, ? Herminia. 
1881. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, XIII, 91, Renia. 
phalerosalis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 107, Herminia. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 388, pr. syn. 
heliusalis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 108, Herminia. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 388, pr. syn. 
~ pastoralis, Grote. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soe., TV, 27, Renia. 
1875. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 304, = belfragei. 
belfragei, Grote. 
2. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., [V, 27, Renia. 
3. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soe., IV, 304, Pl. I, fig. 95, Renia. 
3. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, XIII, 91, pr. syn. 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 75 


Ground color a powdery luteous gray, varying somewhat in shade. 
Head and thorax of the light ground, without powderings. Primaries 
with the markings distinct in all the specimens seen, and as a rule 
with some contrasts in color, the subterminal space being particularly 
liable to be darker in color than the rest of the wing. Basal line 
wanting in the specimens examined. Transverse anterior line upright 
or nearly so, even, brown, usually preceded by a pale shade, quite often 
outwardly diffuse. Transverse posterior line narrow, brown, followed 
by a broader yellow or whitish line, both even, usually nearly upright 
or alittle outcurved; but sometimes broadly outcurved over the cell 
and correspondingly drawn in below. Subterminal line pale, irregular, 
rarely continuous, sometimes punctiform and often obscured in the 
lower part of its course, preceded and defined by a dusky shade which 
is also sometimes broken into spots, but is more usually diffuse, dark- 
ening the entire subterminal space. <A series of more or less distinct 
terminal black dots or lunules. A broad, diffuse, upright median 
shade is present in some specimens and varies to total obsolescence. 
Orbicular small, round, yellow, often absent, rarely black. Reniform 
upright, narrow, somewhat constricted, yellow, with black points, a 
black lunule, or entirely invaded by black. Secondaries paler, dirty 
gray with an even central pale line preceded by a dusky shade, and 
an irregular, pale subterminal line which is often obsolete. Beneath, 
coarsely powdered, with a vague discal lunule on secondaries, and on 
all wings a brown extra-median line and often an exterior pale line. 
The latter is, however, quite frequently lost altogether and yet more 
often lost on the primaries alone. 

Expanse of wings, 20 to 30 inm. = 0.80 to 1.20 inches. 

HABITAT.—Canada to Alabama, to Texas, New Mexico; New York 
and New Jersey, July and August; District of Columbia, Indiana and 
Illinois in July; Texas in May and June. 

This is our most common and widely distributed species, and it is at 
the same time the most easily recognizable. The clear, even trans- 
verse posterior line is unique in the genus, and this is continued to the 
secondaries, giving some specimens a very distinct geometriform 
appearance, The line of variation has been somewhat indicated in 
the description, and while itis considerable it is not confusing, because 
the characteristic median lines dominate everything. The difference 
in sex is strongly marked in the palpal structure. In the male they 
are quite decidedly recurved, while in the female they are straight or 
at most oblique. 


Renia pulverosalis, new species. 


Ground color varying from dirty luteous to smoky, powdered with 
black seales. Head and thorax concolorous. Primaries with all the 
maculation obscure, difficult to make out, with no prominent feature. 
Transverse anterior line dusky, even, a little outcurved. ‘Transverse 


76 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


posterior line narrow, dusky, accompanied outwardly by a paler, 
broader, equally even pale line, the lines varying in general course 
from an even outcurve to an even, not strongly marked, bisinuation. 
Subterminal line vague, paler, often punctiform, and frequently in great 
part lost; preceded by a vague darker shade, which is often broken 
into blotches. A series of obscure terminal dark marks. There is an 
obscure, indefinite upright median shade, which is outwardly diffuse 
and slightly darkens the outer portion of the median space. Orbicular 
small, round, yellow, often wanting. Reniform narrow, upright, yel- 
lowish, with or without black dots at the extremities, sometimes 
entirely black. Secondaries gray to smoky, immaculate or with faint 
traces of median and subterminal lines. Beneath somewhat paler, 
coarsely powdered, with traces of a discal Iunule, and the two usual 
transverse lines. 

Expanse of wings, 26 to 52 mm. = 1.05 to 1.30 inches. 

HABirat.—Glenwood Springs, Colo., August and September. 

Six specimens, equally divided as to sex, are before me, all from Dr. 
William Barnes. 

The species has on close study all the markings found in R. jlavi- 
punctalis, so far as the primaries are concerned, and of this species I 
was at first inclined to consider if an extreme variety. Closer study 
shows that it is altogether a. slighter form, with the outline of R. 
sobrialis rather than Rk. favipunctalis, and the wings as much drawn 
out and pointed. The wings are uniformly powdered, and the trans- 
verse posterior line is almost obsolete. On the secondaries the median 
pale line is entirely lost, and in fact the wings are sometimes entirely 
immaculate. Finally, the palpi are much longer, and in the male are 
not at all recurved, but rigidly oblique. Its relations are thus in 
reality with R. sobrialis and f. larvalis rather than with R. flavipune- 
talis, to which the character of the maculation refers it. 


Genus HYPENULA, Grote. 


1876. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, VIII, 27. 

The eyes are naked, large, globose. Front with a pointed, scaly 
tuft. Tongue strong, moderate in length. Palpi long, flattened, 
upeurved and curving backward, much exceeding the vertex; second 
joint much the longest. The scaly clothing is somewhat loose and 
directed upward and backward; on the terminal joint itis truneated or 
cut off at tip, making the joint in outline somewhat hatchet-shaped. 
In the male the palpi are a very Itttle longer than in the female. 
Antenne situated on the vertex, moderate in length, in the female 
with single small lateral ciliations. In the male the joints have moder- 
ately long curved and slender lateral bristles, and on the underside of 
the shaft are little tubercules arranged in two rows, giving rise to small 
tufts of hair, Ocelli present, close to the compound eye and near to 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 1% 


the base of the antenne. Body moderate, scarcely robust; abdomen 
cylindric, in the female pointed, conical, in both sexes reaching to or a 
little exceeding the hind angle of the secondaries. Legs stout, long, 
well clothed with scales, middle and hind ‘tibice with the usual spurs. 
In the male the fore tibize are somewhat modified. The member is 
short, with a distinct epiphysis and a long process equaling the basal 
joint of the tarsi, tipped with an acute, curved, corneous spine, and 
covering a groove in the first tarsal joint in which lies a pencil of fine, 
hair-like scales. The entire leg structure is much heavier than is 
usual in this series, and the vestiture is coarse and loose. Wings 
large, broad, not frail; primaries trigonate, the costa a little depressed 
centrally, apex rectangular, outer margin curved and only moderately 
oblique, making the inner margin only a little shorter than the costa. 

This is a quite strongly marked genus with a distinct resemblance to 
Bomolocha in its appearance and habitus, vet with the structural fea- 
tures which ally it to Herminia. Thelong, upeurved palpi, terminating 
in a flat, hatchet-shaped tip, are quite characteristic. The yenation is 
normal, the accessory cell of the primaries being present. 

There is only a single species thus far known, and this is of an obscure 
smoky-brown on which all the usual markings are faintly visible. 


Hypenula cacuminalis, Walker. 


1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 37, Hypena. 
1891. Smith, List Lepidoptera, 65, Hypenula. 

biferalis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 257, Herminia. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 44, 389, pr. syn. 

opacalis, Grote. 
1876. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, VIII, 2 
1891. Smith, List Lepidoptera, 63, pr. syn. 


od 


7, Hypenula. 


Ground color a dull, smoky brown, varying in shade, sometimes 
toward blackish, sometimes toward a richer more reddish tint, often with 
sprinklings of whitish scales. Entire body concolorous. Primaries 
with all the usual markings traceable and often quite distinct though 
never contrasting. Basal line evident, brown, single-toothed. Trans- 
verse anterior line single, brown, denticulate, rather evenly outeurved 
over the cell and somewhat irregularly drawn in below. Sometimes an 
indefinite yellowish shade follows the brown line, and sometimes it is 
emphasized by scattering white scales. Subterminal line irregularly 
dentate and angulate, paler than ground color, usually marked by white 
scales and often preceded by a darker brown shading. <A series of black 
terminal lunules, sometimes united into a continuous lie, and often 
reduced to small dots. There is traceable a very vague, diffuse median 
shade. Orbicular small, round, yellow or white, often wanting. Reni- 
form small, narrow, upright, yellowish, marked by a white dot inferiorly 
and sometimes superiorly as well. Secondaries with a somewhat more 
yellowish cast, varying in depth, with a discal lunule, a broad median 


78 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


dark line and a paler subterminal line vaguely visible in most specimens; 
obsolete in some, and quite distinct in others. The markings are most 
evident in the paler specimens, and disappear entirely in the dark forms. 
Beneath more grayish, with coarse brown powderings. Primaries with 
an exterior dark line and a partial subterminal line which is best marked 
on the costa; secondaries with the maculation of the upper side more 
distinctly repeated. 

Expanse of wings, 29 to 35 mm. —1.15 to 1.40 inches. 

HABITAT.—Southern States; Florida in April; Texas in May and 
August. 

The species is a marked one, and offers little variation except in depth 
of ground color, It seems to be not uncommon in its range, Specimens 
occurring in almost all collections. 


Genus HETEROGRAMMA, Guenée. 
1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 91. 
185°. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Lep. Heterocera, X VI, 147. 
Phalenophana, Grote. 
1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., LV, 304. 
1884. Smith, Bull. BkIn. Entomological Soc., VII, 6. 

Head rather small and not prominent; eyes naked, large, not at all 
protuberant. Ocelli distinet, situated close to the compound eye and 
somewhat removed from the base of the antennie, without an evident 
pointed frontal tuft. Palpi long, compressed, oblique, and clothed with 
upright scales in the female, recurved and with the seales directed for- 
ward in the male, the clothing not excessively long in either case. 
Tongue moderate in length and strength. Antenne situated on the 
vertex, well forward, about two-thirds the length of the forewing; 
simple in the female, with lateral bristles in the male, the joints fur- 
nished inferiorly with tubercles from which arise tufts of long hair. 
Body moderate or slight, abdomen cylindrical, reaching to or a little 
exceeding the anal angle of secondaries. Legs moderate in length, 
quite stout; tibia with the usual spurs. 

In the male the anterior tibia is very much abbreviated, anteriorly 
prolonged into a process which is quite prominent and densely scaled, 
covering also a mass of specialized scales. The basal joint of the tar- 
sus is very long, exceeding the tip of the tibial process, and near its 
tip, extending upward, isa peculiar ladle-shaped appendage, the handle 
quite slender and flattened, the bowl hemispherical nearly and fringed 
at the edges; externally it is covered with papillate processes, while 
inwardly it is clothed with long hair. This same structure is also 
present in Palthis, but seems to be absent in all other genera. The 
wings are broad, rather frail in appearance, trigonate, moderately long, 
primaries with the costa arched, the apex sharply rectangular, middle 
of outer margin distinetly though not prominently angulated, a very 
little excavated from that point to the costa and toward the hind angle 
quite oblique. Secondaries rounded, a very little retracted opposite 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 79 


the cell. The venation of the primaries is aberrant, in that the aeces- 
sory cell is wanting, and veins 7 to 10 arise from the same stalk, with 6 
from the end of the subcostal. 

J refer the species described by Mr. Grote as Phalenophana to 
Guenée’s genus, with which it agrees so far as the description goes. 
The genus is well marked and readily distinguished by the characters 
above given. 

A single species only is referable here, my H. palligera proving not 
congeneri¢ on careful study of more material. 


Heterogramma pyramusalis, Walker. 


1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 106, Herminia. 
1893. Smith, Bull. 44, U. S. Nat. Mus., 385, Helcrogramma. 

gyasalis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XIX, 856, Herminia. 
1893. Smith, Bull. 44, U. S. Nat. Mus., 385, pr. syn. 

rurigena, Grote, 
1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., LV, 305, Phalwnophana. 
1884. Smith, Bull. BkIn. Entomoiogical Soc., VII, 6, Helerogramma. 
1893. Smith, Bull. 44, U. S. Nat. Mus., 385, pr. syn. 

Ground color varying from pale testaceous to dark luteous, or even 
smoky gray, in fresh specimens with a more or less marked greenish 
or olivaceous suffusion, which changes to a peculiar sordid yellowish 
or tan in old examples. Head and thorax concolorous, abdomen a 
little paler, with the edges of the segments ringed with whitish. 
Primaries with the maculation well defined. Transverse anterior line 
distinct, upright, pale, outwardly margined by a darker olivaceous 
gray shading, which is outwardly diffuse, extending. well into the 
median space. Transverse posterior line narrow, nearly even, consist- 
ing of an olivaceous followed by a pale line, as a whole nearly upright, 
its course rather irregularly and very slightly sinuate. A somewhat 
broader median shade crosses the space beyond the middle and parallel 
to the transverse posterior line. Subterminal line a little paler than 
the ground color, twice rather markedly bent outward, and with 
three intervening incurves, emphasized by crossing a darker shade 
which begins in the middle of the subterminal space, is there rigidly 
defined and extends into the terminal space, irregularly merging into 
the ground color before the margin is reached. A series of black or 
blackish terminal lunules, often connected, but sometimes reduced to 
venular points. A more or less marked dusky or dark shade extends 
from the apex obliquely inward toward the cell. Orbicular small, 
round, concolorous, yellow, brown or black, or entirely wanting. 
Reniform narrow, upright, centrally constricted, black centered, some- 
times reduced to two superimposed black dots. Secondaries paler, 
more whitish toward the base, crossed by two rather even dark lines 
continuing the median shade and transverse posterior line, and by a 
pale line continuing the subterminal line of the primaries, Of these 


80 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


the inner line is rarely distinct, while the others are fairly well marked 
in most instances, sometimes becoming obsolete toward the costal mar- 
gin. Beneath, varying greatly in color and in the distinctness of 
maculation. Usually all wings have a discal lunule, though this is 
often absent on the primaries and not infrequently on the secondaries 
also. All wings also with an extra median dark and subterminal pale 
line, followed by a series of brown terminal lunules. Sometimes all 
this disappears, but more usually the tendency is to obsolescence on 
the primaries only, and rarely, in dark specimens, both the lines will 
be pale. 

Expanse of wings, 20 to 24 mm.=0.80 to 0.95 inch. 

Hapirar.—Canada to Louisiana and Texas; Middle, Central, and 
Southern States; Missouri in August; Canada in June; New York in 
May; District of Columbia in August. 

This rather common species is quite readily recognized by the 
peculiar color alone. This is a mixture of a pale clay yellow ground 
overlaid by a darker, more olivaceous yellow brown, and of this the 
markings consist. The prominent, rigid transverse anterior line and 
the equally prominent upright rigid shade in the subterminal space 
distinguish the species at a glance, even though it varies greatly in 
the depth of its ground to an almost smoky purplish gray. Fresh 
specimens are quite handsome, 


Genus GABERASA, Walker. 


1865. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XXXIV, 1197. 
Tortricodes, Grote. 

1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., LV. 105 
Eulintneria, Grote. 

1878. Grote, Bull. U. S. Geol. Sury., VII, 564. 

Head moderate, not prominent, without distinct frontal tuft. Eyes 
large, not-prominent, naked. Ocelli distinct, smaller in the male, close 
to the compound eye, and rather near the base of the antenne. Tongue 
moderate in length, strong. Palpi long, compressed, curved upward, 
and sometimes rising nearly upright, but not recurved. Vestiture not 
long, so the joints are not broad as seen from the side; the terminal 
joint or its vestiture truncate at tip. There is no notable difference 
between the sexes. Antenne moderate in length, scarcely exceeding 
half that of the primaries; simple in the female, in the male with mod- 
erate lateral bristles, and inferiorly the joints have shorter fine hair, 
arising from small tubercles. The body is small, the abdomen slender, 
cylindrical, reaching to or somewhat exceeding anal angle of seconda- 
ries. Legs moderately long and stout, tibiae with long unequal spurs 
as usual, the anterior pair modified in the male. The tibia is short, 
with a narrow, long, membranous anterior process, not equaling in 
length the basal joint of the tarsi, and without special modified scales, 
tufts, or pencils of hair. Wings moderate, primaries rather elongate 
and narrowed, differing in the sexes, 


Pg 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. Sl 


In the female the apex is marked and the outer margin is distinetly 
produced or angulated at its middle, slightly excavated between that 
point and the apex, and quite oblique to the hind angle. {In the male 
the apex is obtuse and the wing is cleft from the middle of the margin 
inwardly nearly to the transverse posterior line, each corner of each 
lobe thus formed rounded. In venation the male is just enough mod- 
ified to accommodate the modification of the wing, and the origin of all 
veins is as in the female. This is out of the usual course, in the absence 
of the accessory cell, and in the fact that vein 10 arises out of the sub- 
costal before the end, instead of from the same point with 7 to 9, which 
are on one stalk. With both sexes at hand the genus is recognizable 
at a glance. With the female only there is a decided resemblance to 
Heterogramma, but the wings are narrow, quite different in color, and 
the venation is decisive, if that be referred to. This is the only one of 
our genera in which the wings are lobed or cleft in the male, and we 
have only a single species, which is hence recognized with the genus. 
It is interesting to note that the tibial process has become much 
reduced here, though the tibia itself is very much abbreviated. I 
have seen a second allied species from the West Indies, in which the 
palpiare more strongly recurved and which have a tuft or fringing of 
seales on the costa. Thisisthe typical Tortricodes of Guenée, and not 
congeneric with our more northern form, 


Gaberasa ambigualis, Walker, 

1865. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XXXIV, 1198, Gaberasa, 

S bifidalis, Grote. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., LV, 105, Tortricodes, 
1878. Grote, Bull. U.S. Geol. Sury., VI, 564, Lulinineria, 
1893. Smith, Bull. 44, U. S. Nat. Mus., 395, pr. syn. 

2 indivisalis, Grote. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., LV, 106, Tortricodes. 
1878. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soe., IV, 508, Heterogramma. 
1878. Lintner, Entomological Contributions, IV, 110, 2 bifidalis. 

Ground color a somewhat pale reddish-brown. Head and thorax con- 
colorous; abdomen with a luteous admixture, the edges of the seg- 
iments narrowly pale ringed. Primaries with the markings richer, 
deeper brown, the basal space clearly and evenly tinted, but all beyond 
more or less smoky. Basal line evident in some specimens. ‘Trans- 
verse anterior line upright or a little inwardly oblique from costa to 
hind margin, broad, brown, outwardly diffuse, forming the most prom- 
inent ornamental feature of the wing. ‘Transverse posterior line 
slender, rivulous, and irregularly denticulate and sinuate. A usually 
distinct, rather broader median line, which is more even, but in general 
course very nearly parallel to the transverse posterior line. Subtermi- 
nal line pale, preceded by a darker shade, becoming obsolete toward the 
inner margin, outwardly angulated below the apex and again at the 
middle of its course. An oblique, somewhat undefined brown apical 


7862—No, 48——6 


82 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


streak. A series of blackish terminal dots, sometimes forming a nearly 
continuous line. Orbicular small, brown ringed and white centered, 
often wholly wanting. Reniform narrow, upright, marked as a white 
lunule, reduced to two white dots, or entirely wanting. So far as the 
ornamentation is concerned the sexes are alike, except that in the male 
the cleft of the primaries interrupts the course of the subterminal 
line, this line is much more angulated below the apex, and. the shade 
preceding it is blackish at that point. A black spot marks the lower 
angle of the upper lobe, and a prominent black lunule marks the inner 
limit of the incision. Secondaries luteo-fuscous, darker in the male, 
paler at the anal angle, crossed by a dark median and a pale subtermi- 
nal line. There is also a narrow, sometimes interrupted black terminal 
line, and a dusky discal lunule, the latter often absent. Beneath, paler, 
reddish gray, both wings with a dusky extra median and a pale sub- 
terminal line, the latter frequently in great part obsolete. A dusky 
diseal lunule on the primaries, and a rather prominent black lunule on 
the secondaries. 

Expanse of wings, 22 to 25 mm.=0.90 to 1 inch. 

Hapsirar.—Canada to Texas; Central States; New York, May and 
August. 

There is little variation in this species except in ground color, and 
that is extremely slight. The most prominent ornamental feature is 
the broad, outwardly diffuse transverse anterior line, and in the male 
the black mark terminating the incisure. On comparison a very close 
correspondence will be noted between the markings of this species and 
those of Heterogramma pyramusalis, and the genera are certainly related. 

The other peculiar features of the species have been alluded to under 
the generic heading. Itis rather common in most portions of its range. 


Genus DERCETIS, Grote. 
1878. Grote, Bull. U. 8. Geol. Sury,, IV, 186. 

Head moderate; eyes large but hardly prominent; front smooth, 
with a distinet interantennal tuft. Ocelli distinet, situated close to the 
compound eye and to the base of the antenne. Palpi long, projected 
straight forward or a little oblique, practically alike in both sexes, with 
the usual upright vestiture, the terminal joint pointing upward, the 
vestiture coarse and somewhat imperfectly truncated at the tip, making 
it somewhat triangular. Tongue moderate, or rather weak. Antenne 
moderate in length, set well up on the vertex and not encroaching at 
all on the front. In the female they are simple, in the male pectinated, 
the pectinations proportionately very stout and coarse, not extending 
to the tip, differing quite markedly in the species and without special 
modifications. Body moderate, abdomen conic, cylindrical, slightly or 
not at all exceeding the anal angle of the secondaries. Legs long, 
closely scaled, the tibiz spurred as usual. In the male the fore tibia is 
somewhat shortened, with a moderate extended process anteriorly, not 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS-—SMITH. 83 


reaching the tip of the elongated first tarsal joint, and not covering 
any brush or pencil of hair or specialized scales. The wings are char- 
acteristic; the primaries are broadly trigonate, the apex acute, the 
outer margin distinctly angulated at the middle, excavated between 
that joint and the apex and markedly oblique toward the hind angle. 
The secondaries have the outer margin somewhat retracted opposite 
the cell. The venation is probably somewhat variable on the primaries. 
As described by Mr. Grote no accessory cell is present, and soit seems 
on one specimen examined without denuding. On a bleached wing 
before me the accessory cell is present, though narrow, and vein 10 
arises from this; the venation is quite normal in fact. It is probable 
that the cell may be frequently absent or so reduced as to appear so, 
and in such cases 8 and 10 will seem to or actually arise from the 
subcostal. On the secondaries in the specimen under examination 
veins 3 and 4 are on a stalk beyond the end of the cell, while 5 is out 
of the median by a short curved branch or loop. 

This genus is a well-marked one and quite characteristic. The angu- 
lated wings it shares with Palthis, but they are wider and compara- 
tively shorter. The palpi offer nothing unusual. The fore tibize of the 
male show the characters of the Herminia, but in a very reduced form, 
and no brushes or tufts of hair or scales are present. The antenn in 
the male are remarkably coarse, with rough vestiture, long joints, and 
heavy pectinations. 

Two species are described, both of them small and iight purplish 
gray in ground color. 

Vitrea is the larger, somewhat broader winged, with a reddish or 
brown suffusion and a white reniform. The pectinations of the male 
antenne are long and stout, about twice the length of the joints, 
laterally ciliated, and with long, slender bristles near tip. 

Pygmea is decidedly smaller, darker, more purplish gray in color, 
the reniform yellow, with a central dark lunule. The pectinations of 
the male antenne are hardly longer than the joints, irregularly set 
with rather long, fine hair and with a very long, moderately stout 
bristle at their base, arising out of an enlargement of the joint itself 
rather than of the pectination. 

The species are not common and rarely represented in collections; 
perhaps because they have been considered as micros. 


Dercetis vitrea, Grote. 


1878. Grote, Bull. U. 8. Geol. Surv., 1V, 187, Dercetis. 

Ground color light purplish gray, with a faint reddish suffusion. 
Head, thorax, and abdomen paler, nearly white. Primaries with a 
reddish suffusion over the costal region, becoming more prominent and 
diffuse to the transverse posterior line, beyond which it does not 
extend. Transverse anterior line slender, brown, irregular in course, 
and variably outcurved in the interspaces. Transverse posterior line 


84 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


slender, denticulate or crenulate, as a whole quite evenly outcurved, 
sometimes a little drawn in below the submedian vein. Subterminal 
line vague, denticulate, dusky, emphasized by white scales outwardly, 
sometimes scarcely traceable. A series of small terminal black dots, 
more prominent in the excavation below apex. Orbicular wanting in 
my specimens. Reniform upright, white, outwardly shaded by rusty 
red brown, which sometimes divides it centrally. Secondaries whitish, 
a little stained outwardly or toward anal angle, with a faint crenulate 
discal line continuing the transverse posterior line of primaries and a 
series of distinct, blackish terminal lunules. Beneath paler; primaries 
with the costal and outer margin stained with brown and with an outer 
line, which is well marked on costa only. Secondaries more coarsely 
powdered, with a discal dot, and the markings of the upper side faintly 
reproduced. 

Expanse of wings, 18 to 20 mm, = 0.72 to 0.80 inch. 

Haprrat.—New York and Texas in July; Illinois in May; Eastern 
and Central United States. 

IT have never had any large number of specimens of this species, and 
have never seen any reaching in size those mentioned by Mr. Grote: 
25 mm, which is probably an error. The only variation apparent in 
the specimens before me is in the ground color and the consequent 
relative distinctness of the transverse maculation. 

Dercetis pygmea, Grote. 
1878. Grote, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv., IV, 187, Dercetis. 

Ground color purplish gray, darker than in D. vitrea, but with essen- 
tially the same markings. There is a somewhat more reddish suffusion 
through the center of the primaries, but no determinate shading. The 
reniform is yellow, with a central lunule, and the transverse posterior 
line is a little more even than in its ally. 

Expanse of wings, 14 to 16 mm. = 0.60 to 0.70 inch. 

HABITAT.—Florida; Texas in July. 

The smaller size, darker color, and yellow reniform will readily dis- 
tinguish the species. It is obscurely marked and the description would 
be closely a repetition of that of D. vitrea. It seems more rare than 
its ally, but will probably be found in others of the Southern States, 


Genus PALTHIS, Hiibner. 
1816. Hiibner, Verzeichniss, 542. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Lep. Heterocera, XVI, 151. 
Clanyma, Guenée. 
1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 95. 
Mardara, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Lep. Heterocera, XVI, 157. 
Head moderate; eyes comparatively large, globose, naked. Front 
with an interantennal tuft. Ocelli on the vertex, close to the com- 
pound eye and some distance back from the base of the antenne, 


“4 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 8&5 


which are inserted well toward the front. Tongue moderate. Palpi 
very long; in the female directed straight forward, the terminal joint 
set nearly at right angles to the second and pointing upward; very 
much flattened, the upright scales unusually long, and on the terminal 
joint dilated at tip and almost squarely cut off. In the male the palpi 
are shorter, recurved, with a membranous appendage to the third joint, 
which extends back to the base of the thorax ana contains a pencil of 
fine yellow hair, capable of fanlike expansion. Antenne long, extend- 
ing to the outer fourth of the primaries; in the female simple. in the 
male with lateral bristles, varying in the species. Legs long and stout; 
middle and hind tibiz with the usual spurs; in the male the anterior 
legs have the tibia extremely short; but with a large and broad outer 
process, densely clothed inwardly with long broad seales, and covering 
a groove on the basal joint of tarsus in which lies a pencil of fine hair 
which seems not capable of fanlike expansion. The unusually dense 
mass of long, broad scales gives the process a moplike appearance 
toward the tip. When the process is moved aside from the tarsus itis 
seen to have a slender membranous extension at the tip, while at the 
base of the tarsus is a movable fingerlike member, dilated at the tip 
and furnished with hooks. I have met with this elsewhere in the 
present series in only one instance, and have no suggestion to offer 
concerning its probable use. Primaries narrow, elongate, the costa 
depressed toward the middle, convex before the apex, which is acute 
and somewhat prominent. Outer margin somewhat excavated below 
the apex, obtusely angulated at or above the middle, oblique thence to 
the inner margia, wliich is about one-third shorter than the costa. In 
venation it lacks the accessory cell, and veins 6, 7, 8, and 10 arise 
nearly together from the end of the subcostal, 9 out of 8 before the 
apex. The body is moderate, the abdomen slender, cylindrical, extend- 
ing to or a little beyond the anal angle of the secondaries. 

This genus is readily recognized by the narrow, angulated primaries 
and by the peculiar palpal strueture of both sexes. No other genus in 
our fauna has the peculiar appendage bearing an expansible brush or 
pencil of hair in the male. The structure of the fore legs in the latter 
sex is after the Herminia type, though characteristically modified as 
above described. 

We have two species which are readily distinguishable, and yet very 
similar. VP. angulalis is somewhat the larger, with rusty, red brown 
markings over a more yellowish base, and a yellow patch in the exea- 
vation on the outer margin below the apex. The sub-terminal line has 
a small W at the middle. 

P. asopialis is smaller, darker, more purplish brown, the marking 
blackish, while a blackish pateh on the excavation below apex replaces 
the yellow of P. angulalis, and the W of the subterminal line is much 
more prominent, usually extending to the margin and completely eut- 
ting the terminal space. Structural characters are also present, readily 


86 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


separating thetwo. In P. angulalis the male antennal joints are moder- 
ately long, not marked when denuded, and only slightly so when clothed 
with scales, with moderate slender lateral bristles, and quite a dense 
fringing of shorter cilia beneath; each arising from a small tubercle 
or sensory pit. The female palpi are also longer. P. asopialis has the 
antennal joints in the male shorter, more marked, the lateral bristles 
longer and stouter; but the ciliations from sensory pittings much 
reduced in number. The palpi of the female are somewhat shorter, 
but the terminal joint is longer and yery much broader; altogether 
more largely developed. 

The species are common and are coincident in range, covering the 
entire Eastern and Central United States, extending north well into 
Canada and southwesterly into Texas. 


ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES OF PALTHIS. 


Larger; rusty red brown; a yellow blotch below apex of primaries. --. - ANGULALIS. 
Smaller; purplish brown; 4 black patch below the apex of primaries. ..---ASOPIALIS. 


Palthis angulalis, Hiibner. 

1796. Hiibner, Schmetterlinge Suropas, Pyr., fig. 107, Pyralis. 

1816. Hiibner, Verzeichniss, 342, Palthis. 

1825. Treitschke, Schmetterlinge Europas, V, 36, Hypena. 

1852. Herrich-Schaeffer, Europxische Schmmetterlinge, 382, Herminia. 

1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 95, Clanyma. 

1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 152, Palthis. 

1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 107, Clanyma. 

1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soce., IV, 309, Palthis. 

aracinthusalis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 157, Mardara. 
1893. Smith, Bull. 44, U. 8. Nat. Mus., 385, pr. Syn. ’ 
Ground color varying from yellowish or rusty red brown to purplish. 

Head and thorax concolorous, abdomen paler, less brown. Primaries 
with the markings distinct and contrasting. Transverse anterior line 
slender, single, a little oblique inwardly, but outwardly convex. Trans- 
verse posterior line slender, single, brown, rather evenly bisinuate. 
Subterminal line rarely complete, pale, rather even except at about mid- 
dle, where it is best marked and forms a small W, which in none of the 
specimens seen by me crosses the terminal space. A brown, continuous 
terminal line. There is a broad oblique median shade which is some- 
what vague and indefinite from the costa to the median vein, there 
becomes a rich velvety brown, sharply defined inwardly but diffuse 
outwardly, broadest on the internal margin. Orbicular small, yellow 
or brown, or entirely wanting. Reniform oblong, oblique, rich velvety 
brown in color, with a concolorous central line. Along the costa 
before the apex is usually a richer brown shade, below which on the 
outer margin is a somewhat lunate yellow patch, varying somewhat in 
prominence, and this in turn is inferiorly followed in the terminal 
space by a somewhat darker shading which is sometimes little marked. 


we 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 87 


Secondaries whitish to yellowish, or fuscous, with a yellow or brown or 
smoky shade on the outer margin before the anal angle; crossed by a 
narrow dark line which is contmuous with the subterminal line of 
primaries. <A narrow brown line at base of the fringes, which nearly 
agree in color with those of the primaries. Beneath paler, powdery, 
both wings with the outer lines of upper side reproduced, on primaries 
much less, on secondaries rather more distinctly; secondaries also 
with a discal spot. 

Expanse of wings, 22 to 25 mm.=0.90 to 1 inch. 

HABITAT.—Canadain June; New York, June to August; District of 
Columbia in May; Missouri, May and June. 

This pretty little species is quite common throughout its range and 
comes readily to light. Its chief differential features have been already 
pointed out, and the species should not be difficult of recognition. 


Palthis asopialis, Guenée. 


1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 96, Clanyma. 

1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 152, Palthis. 

1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soec., IV, 108, Clanyma. 

1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 309, Palthis 

Ground color a purplish dark brown. Head and thorax concolorous; 
abdomen a little paler. Primaries with the maculation fairly well 
marked, sometimes prominent. Transverse anterior line single, nar- 
row, blackish or brown, even, outwardly bent over the costa; but as a 
whole, inwardly oblique. ‘Transverse posterior line narrow, dark, 
irregularly dentate and angulated; as a whole outcurved, with a small 
indrawing in the submedian interspace. Sometimes the line is accom- 
panied by a narrow paler shading, which, however, is not prominent. 
Subterminai line narrow, pale, outwardly oblique from costa, forming 
a prominent W at the middle, which cuts the terminal space to the 
outer margin. A narrow, dark, terminal line. An oblique, broad, 
median shade, which is sometimes obseure for its entire course; but 
more usually becomes prominent, velvety blackish brown below thie 
median vein, but does not expand much on the inner margin. Orbic- 
ular, a black dot or wanting. Reniform variable; sometimes an almost 
upright black mark annulate by pale scales; sometimes a large, more 
or less indefinite black blotch, with all sorts of intergrades. The 
apex is concolorous; but belaw it and to the W of the subterminal 
line the terminal space is black filled, and quite usually the dark fill- 
ing extends through the inferior portion of the same space, though not 
contrastingly. Secondaries blackish gray or fuscous, with an outer 
dusky and a pale subterminal line, the latter preceded by a darker 
Shade. A darker indefinite blotch before the anal angle. Beneath, 
smoky or blackish, powdery, with the outer lines of upper side repro- 
duced more or less perfectly. 
Expanse of wings, 21 to 23 mm. = 0.84 to 0.92 inch. 


88 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


HApirat.—With P. angulalis, and at same dates. 

This species is perhaps the less common, especially im the more 
northern part of its range, and is readily distinguishable by its smaller 
size and darker color, and by the dentate transverse posterior and 
subterminal lines, as well as the black patch below the apex. The 
reniform here also is black, and often a large blotch, differing 1n form. 
In P. angulalis the reniform is always oblique from below outward, 
while in this species the opposite tendency prevails, though it is by no 
means coustant. The structural and other points of difference have 
been already pointed out elsewhere. 


Genus CAPIS, Grote. 


1882. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, XIV, 20, 119 
1882. Smith, Canadian Entomologist, XIV, 100. 
1882. Grote, Papilio, II, 185. 

Head moderate or rather small, front narrower in the male. Eyes 
rather small, though prominent, globose, naked. Tongue moderate. 
Palpi oblique or nearly straight, varying in the same sex, well exceed- 
ing the head, but not excessively long. Second joint with rather loose, 
scaly clothing, directed both upward and downward; the joint therefore 
somewhat enlarged at the tip. Third joint less than one-half the length 
of the second, smoothly clothed, not pointed. Front without a pointed 
tuft. Antennie simple in the female; feebly cilate in the male; moder- 
ate in length. Body moderate, thorax proportionately small; abdomen 
reaching to, but hardly exceeding the anal angle of the secondaries. 
Legs stout, smoothly scaled, the ordinary spurs of middle and hind 
tibie long, stout, unequal. Anterior femora in the male somewhat 
enlarged basally and grooved inferiorly, but not otherwise modified. 
Primaries moderate, broad, rather abruptly widened at base, the outer 
margin even, arched, only a little oblique, hence the costal and inner 
margins of nearly the same length. Venation normal. Secondaries 
proportionate. Venation normal, save that 5 and 4 are often on a stalk, 
and vein 5 is distinctly weaker than the others. 

There is only a single species thus far described, and as based on this 
the genus is readily distinguished from all others by the broad, obtuse 
wings, which are suddenly widened at base and not trigonate, and by 
the comparatively short palpi. Indeed, the genus on analysis shows 
the deltoid characters somewhat obscurely. 


Capis curvata, Grote. 


1882. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, XIV, 20 and 119, Capis. 
1882. Smith, Canadian Entomologist, XIV, 100, Capis. 
1882. Grote, Papilio, II, 185, Capis. 
1883. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, XV, 6, Capis. 
Ground color a glistening smoky or bronze brown, varying to black- 
ish. Head and thorax concolorous, abdomen paler, glistening gray. 
Primaries almost evenly of the ground color to the subterminal line 


ih fall ea ali SE een tl a 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. &9 


which is white and extends quite rigidly oblique or a little ineurved 
from the apex to within the hind angle. Beyond this line the terminal 
space is more or less sprinkled with white scales, and there is a white 
terminal line. In the paler specimens there is a trace of a black clavi- 
form. In most specimens the orbicular is visible as a white dot, often 
marked by a few black scales, and the reniform is marked by a few 
white and black scales forming no definite markings. Secondaries 
even, smoky gray, immaculate. Beneath smoky, varying in tinge, in 
the paler specimens with a discal lunule. 

Expanse of wings, 20 to 23 mm.=0.85 to 0.90 inch. 

HABITAT.—Canada in July; Maine, New York, New Hampshire, 
Northern Atlantic and Northern Middle States. 

This species seems to be not rare in the more northern part of its 
range, and is very readily recognized. The smoky-brown glistening 
primaries, cut toward the outer margin by the white subterminal line 
and paler terminal space, are characteristic and distinctive of this 
species. 





Genus SALIA, Hiibner. 


1816. Hiibner, Verzeichniss, 339. 
Colobochila, Wiibner. 

1816. Hiibner, Verzeichniss, 344. 

1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Lep. Heterocera, XVI, 18 
Madopa, Stephens. 

1827. Stephens, in Curtis’ British Insects, 159, 

1857. Lederer, Noetuinen Kuropos, 212. 

Head moderate, eyes prominent though not large, naked. Tongue 
strong, moderate in length. Ocelli distinct, situated close to the com- 
pound eye and rather close to the base of the antenne, ‘The latter 
are moderate in length or rather short, simple in the female, feebly 
ciliated in the male. Palpi oblique, stout, with the pointed frontal 


tuft forming a snout; the second joint longest, clothed with upright 


scales; terminal joint short, obtuse, and divaricate at tip. Thorax 
moderate, abdomen conic, pointed at tip, reaching to but hardly exceed- 
ing the anal angle of secondaries. Primaries rather elongated, trigo- 
nate, apex pointed, outer margin oblique, rounded, leaving the inner 
margin about one-fourth shorter than the costa. Venation normal. 
Legs stout, normal in both sexes. This genus is distinct by the rather 
short, oblique palpi, which scarcely exceed the frontal tuft, and by 
the pointed, rather narrow wings, with three subparallel oblique trans- 
verse lines. 

We have two rather rare species in our fauna, and one is identical 
with a European species, if the locality on the specimen is correct. Of 
these, S. interpuncta is the smaller and has the ordinary spots indicated, 
while S. salicalis is much larger and has no trace of orbicular or reni- 
form. Of the latter species I have seen only one specimen, given me 
by Mr. Grote and labeled Texas. It seems to agree perfectly with 
European specimens, and it may be an imported form with an erroneous 
locality. 


90 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


Lederer says of the early stages, that the larva is uniform velvety 
green, with but 14 legs, and lives in August in willows, the moth making 
its appearance in May and June. 

According to Guenée the caterpillar has the incisions yellowish, the 
head concolorous, and the stigmata black. 


ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES OF SALIA. 


Smaller; the ordinary spots always indicated and usually well marked. INTERPUNCTA. 
Tarver ordinary spots walbines - 225. .o6-ee seen oe oe ee eee eee ee eee SALICALIS. 


Salia interpuncta, Grote. 


1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 93, Wadopa. 
1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 309, Colobochila. 
1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., I, 170, Colobochila. 
1875. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., I], 223, Salia. 
1880. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, XII, 220, Salia. 

saligna, Zeller. 
1872. Zeller, Verh. k.k. Zool. Bot. Ges., XXII, 462, Colobochila. 
1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soe. Nat. Sei., I, 170, pr. syn. 

rufa, Grote. 
1883. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, XV,31, Salia. 

Mr. Grote’s descriptions are as follows: 

‘“« Wadopa interpuncta, Grote.—Primaries dark-shaded pearly gray, 
finely irrorate with black scales, with three nearly equidistant trans- 
verse even brownish lines preceded by pale coincident shades, the first 
line nearer the second, while the third is slightly arcuate, continued 
from apices to internal margin within the angle. Between the first 
and second lines a black dot on the disk, the orbicular. Beyond, but 
approximate to the second line, a larger black dot, the reniform. A 
series of minute interspaceal terminal dots. These are more continu- 
ous on the pale secondaries, which show a discal dot beneath. Legs 
darker than the body parts and abdomen above. Expanse, 20 to 22 
mm.” 

“Salia rufa, n. s—Primaries brownish gray, crossed by three oblique, 
yellowish, narrow lines. Inner line with a costal projection. The first 
diseal dot is close to it. The middle line is a little waved and followed 
by a diffuse black shading, which obscures the outer discal dot. The 
outer line is a little bent at the middle, and loses itself to apex. The 
subterminal field which follows is suffused with reddish brown and lim- 
ited by a very fine irregular line; terminally the wing is again brownish 


gray and shows a faint festooned line; fringes paler, a little brownish. - 


Hind wings fuscous gray with brownish fringes beneath, with black 
diseal dot and outer line, the surface paler, irrorate. Arizona Coll., B. 
Neumoegen, esq. Expanse, 22 mm.” 

Expanse of wings, 20 to 22 mm.=0.80 to 0.90 inch. 

HapnirarT.—Massachusetts to Florida; Texas, Arizona. 

To the courtesy of Mr. Grote I owed a type of Salia rufa, which is now 
in the collection of the United States National Museum, and I have 


the ni eee 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 91 


alsoa specimen of S. interpuncta from the same region, Arizona. ‘There 
is a little variation in ground color and the. amount of shading to the 
transverse lines, and this is really all that separates the nominal species 
described by Mr. Grote. 

The species does not seem to be common anywhere within its range, 
and it is found in very few collections only. 


Salia salicalis, Fabricius 
1794. Fabricius, Entomologia Systematica, III, 569, Pyralis. 
1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 22, Wadopa. 
1858. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 18, Calobochyla. 

Ground color pear! gray, with black, rather sparse powderings. Head 
and thorax concolorous; abdomen more luteous or smoky. Primaries 
with three even inwardly oblique fascia, consisting of a brown and a 
yellow line or shade, the. latter following the basal line, but preceding 
the others. The inner line is either abbreviated on the costal vein or 
it reaches the costa, bending inwardly on the vein. The middle fascia 
crosses at just about the center of the wing, while the outer is incurved 
from the apex to the margin close to the hind angle. The ordinary 
spots are obsolete. Secondaries smoky or yellowish, a little darker 
outwardly, with a trace of a pale subterminal line toward the inner 
margin. 

Expanse of wings, 28 mm. = 1.12 inches. 

HABITAT.—Texas. 

The species is easily recognized, differing by its larger size and 
absence of all trace of the ordinary spots from the more common form. 
The bibliography above given is, of course, extremely incomplete, and 
Walker and Staudinger should be referred to. There has been no ref- 
erence to the species in American publications so far as I am aware, 
and, as I have already indicated, the American habitat of the species 
is not at all beyond doubt. 


Genus BOMOLOCHA, Hiibner. 


1816. Hiibner, Verzeichniss, 343. 

1857. Lederer, Noctuinen Europas, 214. 
Meghypena, Grote. 

1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., I, 86. 
Macrhypena, Grote. 

1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc: Nat. Sei., I, 38. 
Euhypena, Grote. 

1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., I, 58. 

Lederer describes this genus as follows: More robust than the pre- 
vious genus (Pechipogon); the abdomen shorter, the primaries more 
pointed, nearer to the following Hypene. Front with a pointed tuft. 
Palpi horizontal, exceeding the head by more than its own length; 
beneath closely sealed, with a knife-lke edge above, the terminal joint 
small, pointed. Tongue spiral. Eyes naked, their margins with stitf 


a2 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


bristly lashes. Antenne bristlelike, in the male with short, even cilie. 
Thorax woolly, densely clothed, rather more convex and stouter than 
in its allies. Abdomen closely scaled, with hairy dorsal tuftings. 
Breast and femora with dense, long, woolly clothing. Tibi closely 
hairy or scaly. 

With the above characterization -our species agree fairly well, save 
that there is a very great variation in the degree of the “lashing” of 
the eyes, this being never prominent, and usually practically wanting. 
The primaries are large and broad, proportionate to the secondaries, 
which are not usually developed, and this character is really all that 
separates the genus from Hypena. In all the other essential characters 
the genus agrees with Hypena, including therein the absence of sexual 
modifications in the male, except the somewhat more robust body, 
more woolly clothing, more evident dorsal tufts, and somewhat shorter 
and more oblique palpi. The palpi vary in length quite consider- 
ably, but are not excessively long in any instance; longest in the 
largest and smallest of the species, which are most aberrant from the 
others referred to here. 

A very distinet sexual difference which has not been heretofore 
appreciated is that the males are larger, darker, and decidedly more 
robust or woolly than the females. This feature unites species that 
have been heretofore considered as undoubtediy distinct by all students, 
including myself, and I desire to credit My. Butler with the suggestion 
that first induced me to examine the specimens as to sex and the rela- 
tion of the so-called species to each other. The venation is normal in 
both wings. The primaries are trigonate; the costa a little sinuate, 
depressed centrally; the apex a little produced; outer margin quite 
strongly outcurved, only moderately oblique, a little excavated below 
the apex; fringes sometimes feebly scalloped. 

We have in our fauna two quite distinct series. 

In the first the median lines are irreguar, particularly the trans- 
verse posterior, and the median space is decidedly darker, contrasting 
as against the pale, often whitish, subterminal space. 

In the second the transverse posterior line is much more even, at most 
a little angulated, and there is no sharp contrast between the spaces. 
These features are not to be too strictly construed, for there is quite < 
difference in shading, not only between specimens of the same sex but 
yet more between the sexes. However, by contrasting B. baltimoralis, 
of the first series, with female B. achatinalis, of the second, the differ- 
ence attempted to be mdicated will be readily appreciated. 

At the head of the first series | place Bb. manalis, in which neither 
transverse anterior nor transverse posterior line reach the hind margin, 
but unite so as to inclose a rhomboidal dark-brown median space, all the 
rest of the wing being decidedly paler. 

Following this come two species in which the transverse anterior 
line apparently does not reach the costa, but starts from the base on 


ll calle i ee el es 


- 


i, 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMI?PH. 93 


the median vein and curves outwardly to the submedian vein, where it 
1s practically lost, the inner margin being pale to the transverse poste- 
rior line, which also is faint in this portion of its course. The median 
space is dark brown above the submedian vein, contrasting with the 
white lines defining it. 

In .B. baltimoralis the transverse posterior line is irregular, out- 
wardly bent over the cell, thence very oblique and irregular to the 
submedian vein. 

In Bb. bijugalis the transverse posterior line is nearly upright, with a 
single sharp outward tooth opposite the cell. 

B. seutellaris has the median lines complete, white, the transverse 
anterior outwardly oblique, the transverse posterior nearly as in B. biju- 
galis, but more uneven. The contrasts are not as great as in the other 
species, yet, in the female especially, the median space 1s distinctly 
darker, and in the same sex the subterminal space is white or gray, 
while it is more smoky in the male. 

BL. abalinealis has the wing more uniform in color, but with contrast- 
ing white transverse lines, of which the transverse posterior makes a 
long outcurve at its middle, making the median space usually wide. 
Beyond this the wing is more or less mottled with bluish white. 

in the second series the median lines are much more eyen, not white 
or contrasting, while the median space does not contrast solidly with 
the restof the wing, the tendency in this series being to lose the lines 
altogether. Two divisions are indicated by palpal structure, the usual 
form being stout, oblique, and only moderate in length, while in two 
species they are straight and very long, equaling head and thorax 
combined. 

Of the first division of the second series the best marked is B. decep- 
talis, which has both the median lines pale, the transverse posterior 
with a single small outward bend over the cell, which is not infrequently 
wanting. In the female the color is quite decidedly paler, and beyond 
the transverse posterior line the wing is quite strongly powdered with 
bluish white. The male is smoky brown throughout, yet even here there 
is a bluish tinge marked through the outer part of the wing. To this 
species comes 6. perangulalis, Harvey, which is, from the description, 
a male form, and agrees with Walker’s variety y from the description. 

Allied to the preceding is B. madefactalis Guenée, which is based on 
a female afterwards described as B. damnosalis by Walker, and B. acha- 
tinalis by Zeller. The male has been named LB. caducalis by Walker 
and B. profecta by Mr. Grote. It is darker in both sexes than B. decep- 
talis, the transverse anterior line nearly or quite obsolete, the trans- 
verse posterior line rarely pale edged, rather marked by the slight con- 
trast between the more even median space and the more or less violet or 
bluish tinged subterminal space, with a small outward angulation on the 
median vein and another in the submedian interspace. This character 
is constant in both sexes, though eften obscured in the male, which is 
very dark smoky brown, and also the most robust of our species, 


94 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


Lb. sordidula resembles the preceding, but is decidedly slighter and 
more obscure. The male is almost immaculate, with the lines barely 
traceable, except on the costa, while the female has the angles of the 
transverse posterior line better marked, but the violet or bluish shade 
of the outer portion of the wing decidedly obscure, powdery, altogether 
more sordid. 

Bb. toreuta is smoky brown in both sexes, the median lines very slen- 
der, rivulous, white, fragmentary; the transverse posterior marked on 
the internal margin by a prominent, oblong, white spot, which distin- 
guishes the species at a glance. 

Lb. umbralis is a curious form, differing in the more trigonate pri- 
maries, the outer margin oblique and little arched. The maculation is 
all obscure, the transverse posterior line rigid and a little outwardly 
oblique, starting just a little beyond the middle of the costa. 

The two species with long palpi are very different. B. edictalis is 
the largest of all our species; but is less robust than the male LB. made- 
factalis. It has the transverse posterior line like 5. deceptalis, but is 
altogether a more powdery form with numerous irregular brown trans- 
verse strigie, which give it a distinctive appearance. 

B. citata is much the smallest of the species and is perhaps nearer to 
true Hypena than anything heretofore mentioned, except in the propor- 
tionately small secondaries. It resembles B. umbralis in having the 
apparent transverse posterior line crossing near the middle of the fore- 
wing. 

An ally of this latter will be found, perhaps, in Hrastria mitographa, 
Grote. I have seen only one of the types which lacks the wings on one 
side, and 1t may not belong here with my present ideas on the genus. 
I prefer, therefore, to omit it at present and relegate the species to the 
genus in which it 1s described until material can be obtained. 

B. annulalis also is not represented in the collection before me, and 
though I have seen the type, which indicates a good and distinct 
species, I can not add to the somewhat scant description. 

Bomolocha incusalis, Grote, belongs to Pleonectyptera. 

I have a single male specimen from South Dakota which indicates a 
a new species allied to B. deceptalis, but this is hardly sufficiently good 
to form a type. 


ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES OF BOMOLOCHA. 


1. Palpi oblique, moderate in length, exceeding the, head by little more than its 


own length’... 22). ii jseecie atc loss sees ee ee a ae ae 2. 

Palpi straight, exceeding the head by the length of head and thorax com- 
bined suse 5. eo. cst eer cae wees ee rents Bae ere rae ree ee ee eee eee ike 

2. Median lines of primaries not reaching the inner margin, uniting inferiorly 
to inclose a contrastingly brown, rhomboid median space. ---- -- MANALIS. 
Transverse anterior line not reaching the costa; basal space superiorly brown 
above the transverse anterior line, inferiorly pale ..................-.. 3. 


Median lines normal, reach both costa and inner margin .............-..----- 4, 


st el it 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. JD 


3. Transverse posterior line with a strong outward bend over the cell, very 
irregularly and markedly oblique below..............---. BALTIMORALIS, 
Transverse posterior line with an abrupt, sharp angle opposite the cell, its 
course else nearly upright or only a little sinuate............. BILJUGALIS, 

4. Median lines irregular, more or less white, contrasting, median space darker 
emer Meteo UG WIN ae ee 5. 

Median lines even or only a little angulate, not irregular; basal and median space 
concolorous, subterminal rarely with strong contrasts, often conco- 


PUR sree Rares rete irs ae, ngs Sees ee wee No es bee 6, 
5. Transverse anterior line outwardly oblique, strongly dentate; transverse posterior 
line sharply produced opposite the cell, irregularly bent and sinuate 
De lO Warne eians a es oes a Seems sac eee oak hoe ae Ee SOUTELL ARIS, 


Transverse anterior line irregular, hardly oblique; transverse posterior line 
slender, white, sharply defined, widely and rather evenly outcurved 


THE (Hla veaee race eye ote Se tS iS Oe os ls Sle ter ey ABALINEALIS. 

6. Transverse posterior line with a single small angulation on the cell, and even this 
SOUS G HIRE GSM MECUIN UN arte ioers Nesiaetias ofa Sasa c ernie eon ser yiala oe ee DECEPTALIS. 
Transverse posterior line with a small angulation over the cell and another in the 
submedian interspace; more robust; transverse posterior line in the male 

marked; colors in the female bright............ ..-...... MADEFACTALIS. 

Slighter; transverse position in the male scarcely traceable, color almost uniform ; 
COlOTssMEtnestemale Sondide= p= ss=2- +o =. 2.52 as o-~ = =. 5 SORDIDULAL 
Trausverse posterior line rigid, a little outwardly oblique, starting from nearly 
GhepmMldd@leou she: costalimaroMes 4. °- ses<is25-, es o=s sc ns ~ 255 UMBRALIS 

The lines lost, or marked by white scales only; the transverse posterior line with 

a prominent, oblong white patch on hind margin..-.-...---..-- TOREUTA. 

7. Size very large; the wing crossed by numerous brown strigvw ..-..--.-EDICTALIS. 
Size very.small the maculation confused _..........-2.-=s<--2: --s-s<--- CITATA,. 


Bomolocha manalis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 33, Hypena. 
1870. Robinson, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., N. Y., IX, 311, Hypena. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 103, Hypena. 
1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 309, Bomolocha. 

Ground color a pale brown, varying to whitish in the female and to 
smokyin the male. Head and thorax concolorous; the abdomen a little 
paler. Primaries with the median space a rich uniform brown, often 
velvety in appearance, contrasting strongly with the remainder of the 
wing, though less soin the male. The median lines are connected infe- 
riorly; the transverse anterior very oblique, even, white, extending to 
the internal vein, on which it meets and joins the transverse posterior 
line. This is also white, starts a little outwardly oblique, is then prom- 
inently exserted and then again inwardly oblique to the internal vein, 
inclosing thus between the two lines a rhomboidal patch, which is the 
median space, neither of the median lines reaching the inner margin. 
Transverse posterior line punctiform, white, preceded by blackish spots, 
a little sinuate and variably distinct. more evident in the male as a 
rule. At the apex is a paler triangle, inferiorly margined by a dark 
brown oblique shade, which is frequently broken into three oval blotches, 
and this shade nearly meets the outward bulge of the median space. 
A slender, pale, terminal line. The paler shade of the wing includes 


96 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


all the basal space, continued below vein 1 to meet the same shade from 
the outer portions of the wing, where it darkens toward the oblique 
apical patch. The orbicular is not marked in any of the specimens 
now before me, but the reniform is indicated in some by a few raised 
black scales, forming a more or less evident lunule. Secondaries smoky 
gray to brown, darker in the male, the secondaries with a usually evi- 
dent discal lunule and an occasionally marked median line. 

Expanse of wings, 25 to 27 mm. = 90.90 to 1.06 inches. 

HaAsiratr.—Canada to District of Columbia; Minnesota; Lowa; Dis- 
trict of Columbia in June. 

This is a very pretty, very distinet, and not very common species, 
which is recognizable at once by the peculiar shape of the median space, 
inwardly marked by the united median lines. 

In the male the paler shade has just a feeble violet tinging. 





Bomolocha baltimoralis, Guenée. 


1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 34, Hypena. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 31, Hypena. 
1870. Robinson, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., N. Y., IX, 310, Hypena. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., LV, 102, Hypena. 
1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., LV, 509, Bomolocha. 
1873. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, V, 226, Bomolocha, 
1882. Packard, Papilio, H, 181, larva. 

benignalis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 32, Hypena. 
1870. Robinson, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., N. Y., LX, 310; pr. syn. 
1873. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, V, 226, pr.syn. 

laciniosa, Zeller. 
1872. Zeller, Verh. k. k. Zol. Bot. Ges., XXII, 464, pl. 1, fig. 8, Hypena. 
1873. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, V, 226, pr. syn. 


Ground color brown, varying in shade. Head brown, with gray 
scales intermixed, the latter sometimes predominating. Thorax with 


vo 


the collay brown, gray tipped, dorsum brown anteriorly, posteriorly 


gray; sometimes the entire thorax gray, and sometimes entirely brown 
with a gray admixture. Abdomen fuscous. Primaries with the median 
space dark brewn to blackish, this shade extending through the basal 
space and obscuring the transverse anterior line, which is faintly 
marked on the costa. The inferior portion of basal space is more or 
less white powdered, this pale shading extending beneath vein 1 and 
connecting with the similar shading beyond the transverse posterior 
line. The transverse anterior line extends apparently from the costa 
at the extreme base of the wing obliquely outward to the submedian 
vel at one-fifth of its distance from base, then bends backward and 
downward to the margin, very feebly marked below the vein. As a 
matter of fact, the true transverse anterior line is superiorly obsolete 
or only traceable, and a longitudinal line joining it below the cell gives 
afalse impression, which is conveniently utilized for descriptive pur- 
poses. The transverse posterior line is black, followed by a white line, 


a a i i a el 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 97 


and this in turn by a fainter yellow brown line. From the costa it is 
outwardly oblique with a marked inward curving to vein 5, then nearly 
straight to vein 6, forming an obtuse spur and greatly oblique inwardly, 
unequally marked on the veins, and reaching the inner margin close to 
the transverse anterior line in the female, but a little more remote from 
itin the male. Subterminal line punectiform, consisting of black and 
white dots and scales, sometimes forming a subcontinuous line, but 
more usually entirely obsolete. A very prominent diffuse black streak 
extends from the apex inwardly nearly to the outward angulation of 
the transverse posterior line. A series of small, black terminal lunules. 
The median space is sometimes e¥enly colored, brown, varying almost to 
blackish, sometimes darkest inferiorly, and with a more rosy suffusion 
toward the costa. Orbicular, a small round dot of raised scales. Reni- 
form, a slender black lunule, also of elevated scales. These markings 
are variably evident, most prominent, of course, in the paler specimens, 
and apparently obsolete in the darker. Secondaries even, smoky fus- 
cous, varying in tint. Beneath, smoky gray to fuscous, with a variably 
evident common outer line, and on secondaries a discal spot or lunule. 

Expanse of wings, 25 to 35 mm.=1 to 1.40 inches. 

HApsirat.—Nova Scotia to District of Columbia; west to the Central 
States: June to August. 

This is not an uncommon species, and offers a number of distinctive 
features. The forewings are narrower and more pointed than in any 
other; the outer margin is very oblique, only a little rounded, and not 
at all produced medially or excavated below the apex, while the fringes 
are feebly scalloped. The contrasts between the dark median and 
paler surrounding spaces are variably marked, from white to gray, 
brown, the darker specimens being males, as arule. A variable feature 
is the distance between the median lines on the inner margin, and as a 
rule the transverse posterior line is much the most distinct, crossing 
the space below vein 1. 

Guenée described from a single female in his own collection, and 
Walker’s type of B. benignalis is also afemale. Zeller’s type of B. laci- 
niosa was a full-marked dark male. 


Bomolocha bijugalis, Walker. 


1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 32, Hypena. 
1870. Robinson, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., N. Y., IX, 311, Hypena. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 103, Hypena. 
1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 309, pl. 1, fig. 93, Bomolocha. 
1873.. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, V, 226, Bomolocha. 
pallialis, Zeller. 
1872, Zeller, Verh. k. k. Zool.-Bot. Ges., XXII, 466, pl. 11, fig. 9, Wupena. 
1873. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, V, 226, pr. syn. 
Jfecialis, Grote. 
1881. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, XIII, 133, Bomolocha. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. wlus., 44, 391, pr. syn. 


7862—No. 48——7 


98 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


Ground color brown. Head and thorax concolorous, abdomen more 
fuscous. Primaries with the median space brown, the surrounding and 
marginal spaces whitish to pale brown, often with a bluish or violet 
shading. Transverse anterior line transformed into a curved white 
line from base to the internal vein, along which it is continued to the 
transverse posterior line, leaving all below this line pale, to join the 
pale shade beyond the transverse posterior line. Transverse posterior 
line black, followed by a white line, these lines lost in strongly con- 
trasting specimens; upright or nearly so, with a usually acute, rarely 
obtuse, outward tooth over the median vein, and sometimes a more or 
less marked, never strong, sinuation thence to the margin. Subter- 
minal line punctiform, a little sinuate, composed of white scales pre- 
ceded by blackish, somewhat indefinite spots, and beyond this the wing 
is again somewhat washed with brown to the margin, darkening to a 
more or less prominent oblique subapical streak or mark, the apex of. 
the paler portion of the wing. ‘The ordinary spots are variably defined 
by upright black scales. Secondaries uniform. smoky fuscous. Beneath, 
somewhat reddish gray, powdery, with a common faint extra median line, 
within which the primaries are dusky; secondaries with a discal spot. 

Expanse of wings, 25 to 30 mm.=1 to 1.20 inches. 

HABITAT.—Canada to Florida, to Texas, to Easton, Washington. 
Canada and New York in June; Texas in July. 

This is more widely distributed than the previously named species 
and varies a little in ground color within the limits of the same sex. 
Out of over a dozen specimens before me none are males, and I am 
therefore unable to give the sexual variation. There is a distinct vari- 
ation, however, from an almost white shading extra medially to a faint 
violet and even brown tinge, all sorts of intermediate forms occurring. 
The outward tooth of the transverse posterior line also varies some- 
what in prominence and in the acuteness of its tip. [t isupona rather 
dark specimen with somewhat broad angle and altogether faded, that 
Mr. Grote based his species B. fecialis. In the wing form this species 
which so nearly resembles Bb. baltimoralis in type of marking is quite 
different from it. The primaries are broad, the costa quite arched, the 
outer margin broadly outcurved and only a little oblique; the excava- 
tion below the apex barely marked. 


Bomolocha scutellaris, Grote. 


1875. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, V, 225, Bomolocha. 

Ground color brown, varying in shade. Head and thorax concolor- 
ous, variably marked with gray scales. Abdomen of the same shade 
as the secondaries, the segments narrowly pale ringed, most evidently 
so in the males. Primaries in the females with the basal and extra 
median spaces more or less prominently white marked; in the male 
only a little paler than the median space, which itself is not so dark; 
the subterminal space more or less whitish powdered. Transverse 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 99 


anterior line white with an outward black edging, a little outeurved on 
the costa, strongly outwardly oblique to the internal vein and then 
mwardly to the hind margin. Below the median vein the basal space 
is paler and more white powdered than in the costal region, and below 
the internal vein the line is obscure, the pale shade thus invading a 
little the median space. Transverse posterior line black, outwardly 
edged with white and followed by a vague yellowish brown line; out- 
wardly oblique, but with an inward curve from the costa to vein five, 
thus forming an obtuse tooth, and running thence a little oblique and 
somewhat irregularly sinuate to the inner margin. Subterminal line 
white, punctiform, preceded by more or less obvious black spots some- 
times wanting; preceded also on the costa by a dusky patch, most evi- 
dent in the paler specimens. Apex usually paler, inferiorly marked by 
an oblique dark or blackish shade, usually divided into two black spots 
and occasionally almost wanting, in the latter case the apex being 
nearly concolorous. A series of terminal lunules, sometimes forming 
an almost continuous line, preceded by variously obvious pale or white 
lunate spots. Ordinary spots black, composed of elevated scales—a 
small dot for the orbicular, an upright line for the reniform. See- 
oudaries varying from pale fuscous gray to dark smoky brown, immacu- 
late except for a broken black terminal line; the fringes cut with yel- 
low. Beneath gray to smoky, powdery, with an extra median line and 
a diseal lunule, which latter is usually obsolete on the primaries. 

Expanse of wings, 27 to 32 mm.=1.10 to 1.50 inches. 

Hasirar.—Canada to District of Columbia; westward to British 
Columbia; Central States, Canada and New York in June; District of 
Columbia in August. 

This species differs at -onee from all those previously described by 
the complete transverse anterior line; but this is yet very oblique and 
especially in the female tends to become lost on the internal vein, and 
when the pale shade partially invades the median space below this 
vein the resemblance to B. bijugalis becomes marked. The sexual differ- 
ence in this species is strongly emphasized, the male being much 
darker, sometimes almost uniform in tint throughout, much more 
robust, and with much looser, coarser, and longer thoracic clothing. 
The breast is wooly, the vestiture thin but dense, loose, and divergent, 
forming an incomplete tufting at the base of the abdomen. It is possi- 
ble that with fresh specimens at hand we may find at this point a 
secondary sexual structure; but my material is neither sufficient in 
anount nor satisfactory in quality to enable me to make out with cer- 
tainty what I can only suspect. In wing form the species is somewhat 
intermediate between B. baltimorals and B. bijugalis. The costa is 
scarcely arched, the apex is pomted, the outer margin even, oblique, a 
little rounded only. In the male the primaries are wider than in the 
female, 





100 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


The species seems not rare in the northern and northwestern part of 
its range. 
Bomolocha abalinealis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 31, Hypena. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., [V., 102, Hypena. 
i873. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, V, 225, Bomolocha. 
1891. Dyar, Canadian Entomologist, XXIII, 157, larva. 

Ground color arich dark brown, varying to smoky. Head and thorax 
concolorous. Abdomen fuscous; the edges of the segments feebly pale 
ringed. Primaries quite even in color, the prominent white lines reliev- 
ing the uniformity. ‘Transverse anterior line even, slender, white, with 
two outward angulations. A white line from base to the transverse 
anterior line at its middle, below which the basal space is white pow- 
dered. In the male thisis all obscure, and sometimes quite lost. Trans- 
verse posterior line double, white, the intervening space quite broad 
and of the ground color, in course a little irregular, but with a great 
central outeurve or bulging, much widening the median space. Sub- 
terminal line white, inwardly oblique until it reaches near the trans- 
verse posterior line, with which it runs rather closely parallel for the 
remainder of its course and with the outer line of which it is connected 
by white lines on the veins, cutting the subterminal space into brown 
spots, the largest of which are on the costa and internal margins. 
Apex pale, often white, inferiorly marked by a more or less evident 
brown or black oblique shade, below which the terminal space is often 
more or less white, gray, or bluish marked. A series of brown terminal 
lunules, beyond which is a pale line at the base of the frmges, which 
latter are cut with yellowish. Ordinary spots black, small, marked by 
raised seales, as usual. Secondaries uniformly fuscous or smoky, with 
a darker terminal line. Fringes with a yellow line at base, a blackish 
interline, and whitish tipped. Beneath reddish-gray, powdery, with a 
common outer line within which the primaries are darker; secondaries 
with a discal lunule. 

Expanse of wings, 25 to 52 mm.=1 to 1.30 inches. 

Haprratr.—Canada to Middle and Central States, June to August. 

This is an easily recognized species. The contrasting narrow white 
line, the transverse posterior so strongly curved, and the cutting of 
the subterminal space are characteristic of the species.. The male is 
much the larger and more robust, the difference in all respects quite as 
marked as in 5. scutellaris; but there is less difference in the ornamen- 
tation. While the male is darker and more sordid asa whole, the white 
rather dirty, yet there is no greater difference or lack of contrast. The 
wing form is most like that of B. manalis, the female rather broader 
and more obtuse, the male with somewhat more pointed apices and 
more oblique outer margin of primaries. The species is not a rare one 
and is even locally common. 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 101 


Bomolocha deceptalis, Walker. 


1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, X VI, 30, Hypena. 
872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 104, Hypena. 
1874. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., II, 51, Waerhypena. 
perangulalis, Harvey. 
1875. Harvey, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sei., II, 288, Bomolocha. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 393— B. damnosalis. 
1893. Butler, Entomologist, XX VI, 312, pr. syn. 

Ground color brown: In the female a rather bright reddish gray 
brown; in the male a very dark smoky fuscous brown. Head and 
thorax concolorous with the primaries, abdomen with the secondaries. 
Primaries in both sexes a little paler powdered in the basal space and 
again beyond the transverse posterior line; but while in the female 
this powdering is quite dense and makes a light bluish gray shade, in 
the male it is sparse and appears as a thin bluish wash over the fus- 
cous or smoky brown base. ‘Transverse anterior line even, pale, yellow- 
ish, with brown defining lines, a little outwardly bent on the costa, 
straight or a little oblique below, again inwardly bent on the internal 
vein. Transverse posterior line even, pale, gray or whitish, preceded 
by a brown shade line, almost rigid, a little oblique and a very little 
outwardly beut on the median vein, this angle sometimes disappearing 
completely. Subterminal line pale, sinuate, rarely continuous, pre- 
ceded by black spots, which occasionally form a subcontinuous shading. 
Apex pale, below which there is usually an oblique shade, never promi- 
nent, and often hardly distinguishable from the remainder of the termi- 
nal space in which the ground color prevails, though more or less 
modified or lightened by white and bluish scales. A continuous brown 
terminal line, followed by a yellow line at the base of the fringes. 
Ordinary spots small, marked by upright black scales as usual, scarcely 
prominent. Secondaries grayish fuscous in the female, smoky or black- 
ish in the male, immaculate except for a brown terminal line, which is 
followed by a yellow line at the base of fringes. Beneath, gray in the 
female, smoky fuscous in the maie, immaculate, save that the sub- 
terminal line of the primaries is incompletely reproduced. 

Expanse of wings, 30 to 35 mm.—1.20 to 1.40 inches. 

Hasiratr.—Canada to Virginia, to Central States; New York in 
July. 

This is a common species and readily recognizable in both sexes by 
the very even, pale median lines, the outer nearly rigid or with only a 
feeble angulation on the median vein. Dr. Harvey has compared the 
species to Parallelia bistriaria in appearance, and the comparison is 
not a bad one for the male, which is very much more robust and darker 
than the female, becoming almost blackish in some cases. The slighter 
body and paler colors make the primaries of the female seem more 
frail, and this is emphasized by the somewhat depressed costa in the 
male. 


102 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


In my catalogue I had referred Bb. perangulalis to B. damnosalis, 
Walker, and suggested their identity with B. deceptalis, without recog- 
nizing the fact that the differences were sexual. Mr. Butler afterwards 
disputed my references to B. damnosalis, and jadging from Walker’s des- 
cription he is correct. Healso suggested the sexual relation of B. peran- 
gulalis to Bb. deceptalis, and in this also he is right. In the British 
Museum the specimens were mixed, and I must have taken as type 
specimen of Walker’s Bb. damnosalis one not entitled to rank as such. 
I can not explain my error in any other way. 


Bomolocha madefactalis, Guenée. 


1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 35, Hypena. 

1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XV, 33, Hypena. 

1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 103, Hypena. 

1873. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, V, 226, Bomolocha. 
achatinalis, Zeller. 


1872. Zeller, Verh., k. k. Zool. Bot. Ges., XXII, 468, Pl. II, fig .7, Hypena. 
1875. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, V, 226, pr. syn. 
1882. Grote, in Check List; a distinct species. 


damnosalis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, X VI, 35, Hypena. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 44, 393, Bomolocha. 
caducalis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 35, Hypena. 
profecta, Grote. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Ain. Entomological Soc., IV, 194, Hypena. 
1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sei., 1, 30, Maerhypena. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 398, = caducalis. 

Ground color deep chestnut brown, varying to smoky or blackish in 
the male. Head and thorax concolorous with the paler shade of the 
primaries; abdomen like secondaries. Primaries with the space beyond 
the transverse posterior line bluish gray or violet in the female, very 
feebly violet tingea only in the male. Transverse anterior line feebly 
marked, single, outwardly oblique, with two outcurves, that below the 
median vein best marked; often entirely obsolete in the male, more 
rarely in the female. Transverse posterior line siender, pale, prinei- 
pally defined by the difference in shade between the median and sub- 
terminal spaces, its course upright, or nearly so as a whole, with alittle 
outward angulation over the median vein, and another in the sub- 
median interspace. Subterminal line pale, vague, broken, sinuate, 
sometimes marked by dark preceding black dots, but more usually by 
a vague indefinite shade. Apex moreor less pale marked, below which 
is an oblique darker shade more or less obvious, but never prominent 
and sometimes entirely wanting. A series of small terminal dots which 
are often wanting, or in the male not visible. Through the outer por- 
tion of the median space it darkens somewhat to the transverse poste- 
rior line, forming a sort of median shade-band. Ordinary spots 
indicated by black scales as usual. Secondaries fuscous gray brown 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 103 


to smoky black; in the female often with a vague discal lunule, in the 
male immaculate. Beneath, ashen to smoky, with a more or less 
marked outer line and discal lunule on all wings. 

Expanse of wings, 24 to 32 mm.=0.95 to 1.30 inches. 

HABITAT.—Canada to Texas; Central States; South Dakota; Dela- 
ware in June. 

Of the specimens before me from the United States National Museum, 
one is marked No. 2841, Sept. 9th, ’82, and this is an undersized female, 
expanding 24 mm., or less than an inch. Few specimens expand less 
than 28 mm., and 50 mm. is about a fair average expanse. This expla- 
nation is made in view of the fact that B. sordidula resembles this 


~ species in the female so nearly that errors are possible, and size is an 


important factor in distinction. A second specimen from the National 
Museum is marked “ Larva on Walnut, pupated Aug. 12, 83. Issued 
April 16, 84.” This specimen is a full-sized male. The sexual differ- 
ences in this species are strongly marked, the dark, robust, broad- 
winged male bearing little resemblance to the lighter, more frail female. 
To Mr. Butler belongs the credit of pointing out this relationship, which 
had not been theretofore suspected. We have in the male, which is 
best known as Hypena profecta, the most robust of our species and the 
broadest winged. It is a common species locally. 


Bomolocha sordidula, Grote. 


1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 105, Hypena. 
1876. Grote, Check List Noctuidie, 45, Bomolocha \ Euhypena. 

‘*Male.—Size and color and form of H. toreuta. Sooty black, pow- 
dered with gray scales. The ordinary lines are faintly apparent, nearly 
perpendicular, brought into relief by pale powderings, waved or undu- 
late. Transverse posterior line usually marked by pale scales on costa. 
Several anteapical minute pale costal dots. Fringes interrupted with 
whitish on both wings, short. Secondaries deep blackish, with discal 
dots apparent. Beneath paler, dusted with pale scales, without mark- 
ings, except terminal lines as on upper surface, and discal marks.” 

The above original characterization applies fairly well, and it need 
only be added that while some specimens become almost immaculate, 
with a bronze glistening reflection, others have the transverse posterior 
line traceable, and in such cases it is as in the female, which has not 
been described. 

Female.—Ground color, dirty luteous brown. Head and thorax con- 
colorous, abdomen pale luteo-fuscous like secondaries. Primaries with 
the median space a little darker, a bluish gray shade following the 
transverse posterior line and lost before reaching the subterminal line; 
terminal space sometimes a little paler. Transverse anterior line quite 
remote from base, enlarging the basal space, which is sometimes a 
little lighter in shade; brown, single, feebly marked, with two distinet 
outcurves. Transverse posterior line pale, inwardly margined by a 


104 BULLETIN 48; UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 


darker shade line which is also inwardly diffuse and darkens the outer 
portion of the median space; as a whole nearly upright, with well 
marked outward bends on the median vein and in the submedian inter- 
space. Subterminal line pale, sinuate, of the usual form, continuous or 
nearly so, sometimes marked by a darker preceding shade; but in none 
of my specimens by blackish spots. Apex pale, limited inferiorly by 
an oblique shade which is scarcely darker than the ground. A series 
of dusky terminal lunules, which are sometimes preceded by a paler 
shading. The ordinary spots are barely indicated in my specimens by 
a few black, raised scales. Secondaries uniformly fuscous. Beneath 
paler, powdery, nearly immaculate, or with a more or less defined 
discal spot. 

lixpanse of wings, 24 to 27 mm. = 0.95 to 1.08 inches. 

Hapirat.—New York to Texas. 

A specimen in the National Museum, from the Riley collection, is 
marked “Larva on Alder, 21, 7, 84.” 

The almost immaculate male would hardly be associated with the 
female at first sight, and as a matter of fact the females are either 
marked B. achatinalis or B. madefactalis in collections, none of them 
having been correctly associated with the opposite sex. 

The resemblance to the female B. madefactalis is sufficiently marked 
to justify placing it as a small, somewhat faded specimen, and the differ- 
ences are really only comparative. The size is smaller, 25mm. being the 


average, the body seems more than proportionately slighter, and the 


costa seems a little more arched, the outer margin more rounded. In 
color it lacks all bright or rich shadings and has a dirty luteous tint, while 
the bright violet or gray tints of the former species are replaced by a 
sordid gray with a faint bluish tinging, and this even is much reduced 
or almost wanting. The transverse posterior line is decidedly more 
angulated, and the subterminal line is more distinet and more continu- 
ous. With a fairly good series at hand there should be no difficulty 
in distinguishing the species; but isolated specimens may in some 
instances be doubtful. 

The species seems less abundant than its ally. The type is in the 
Philadelphia collection, a fact I was not certain of in my catalogue. 


Bomolocha umbralis, Smith. 


1884. Smith, Bull. BkIn. Entomological Soc., VII, 4, Bomolocha. 

Ground color dark chocolate brown. Head and thorax concolorous; 
abdomen smoky or blackish, like the secondaries. Primaries with no 
strong contrasts, a bluish powdering between the median shade and 
transverse posterior line, feebly relieving an otherwise almost uniform 

Shading. ‘Transverse anterior line a somewhat richer brown, single, 
broad, but not contrasting, with two outcurves. <A little beyond the 
middle of the wing is a rigid, upright pale line, preceded by a richer 
brown shading, beyond which the space is feebly blue powdered to the 


eee ee = 5 


ee So ee ee ee 


a 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 105 


transverse posterior line. The latter is somewhat diffuse, its edges 
irregular, but its course very even and nearly parallel with the outer 
margin. Subterminal line fragmentary, marked by vague paler or yel- 
lowish scales. Apex not paler. A series of brown or blackish terminal 
lunules. The ordinary spots are very feebly marked by upright black 
scales. Secondaries a uniform dark, smoky brown, with a faint adimix- 
ture of carmine. Beneath, uniform blackish brown, without markings. 

Expanse of wings, 27 mm.=1.10 inches. 

HABITAT.—Florida. 

This species is entirely unlike all our others, and resembles a West 
Indian type. 1 would not now deseribe the species as of our fauna 
without more evidence as to its range, but retain it here since it has 
been described; it will probably find more congenial allies when the West 
Indian species are fully studied. As compared with the other species, 
it has the pointed primaries with the oblique outer margins ot Bb. balti- 
moralis, but the wings are shorter and broader. It differs from all 
others of our species, save B. toreuta, by the want of a paler apical 
space, and from all by the peculiar upright median pale line, which at 
first appears like the transverse posterior line. 

The specimen now before ine is a male and resembles the type which 
is in the United States National Museum. 


Bomolocha toreuta, Grote. 


1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., 1V, 24, Hypena. 

1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Se1., I, 38, Euhypena. 
internalis, || Robinson. 

1870. Robinson, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., N. Y., IX, 311, Hypena. 

1892. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., 1V, 24, pr. syn. 
albisignalis, Zeller. 

1872. Zeller, Verh. k. k. Zool. Bot. Ges., XXII, 463, Hypena. 

1875. Grote, Check List Noctuidie, 45, pr. syn. 

Ground color sooty or smoky brown. Head and thorax concolorous; 
abdomen a little paler. Primaries with no color contrasts, the median 
lines obscured, marked by white scales. Transverse anterior line 
marked only by white scales on the costa and internal margin and 
more rarely, also, on the veins—sometimes quite obsolete. ‘Transverse 
posterior line traceable for most of its sinuate course by white scales, 
usually distinct as a white line at its costal inception, and followed on 
the inner margin below vein 1, by a white blotch, which extends nearly 
to the subterminal line; broken, narrow, sinuate, sometimes nearly 
obsolete and rarely subcontinuous. <A series of black, preceded by 
white, terminal dots. Ordinary spots small, marked by raised black 
scales. Secondaries, smoky fuscous, immaculate. Beneath, a rather 
pale, powdery gray; in the female with a reddish tinge, with a variably 
marked extra median line and a discal lunule. 

Expanse of wings, 25 to 29 mm.=1 to 1.15 inches. 

HABITA?T.—New York to Texas, to Kansas; July. 


106 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


This species does not seem to be taken by the Albany collectors, 
but I have a specimen from Newburg, nearly half way up the Hudson. 
It seems more common southwardly and is fairly well represented m 
collections. 

The species is so simply marked that it seems as if mistake was 
impossible. The white bloteh on the internal margin 1s quite unique 
in the genus as represented in our fauna. There is no difference in 
maculation between the sexes, and the difference in size is not greatly 
marked. The male is more heavily built, however, and the vestiture is 
more shaggy above and more woolly beneath. 


Bomolocha edictalis, Walker, 

1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, X VI, 28 Hypena. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 3938, Bomolocha. 

9 vellifera, Grote. 
1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soe. Nat. Sei., 1, 87, pl. II, fig. 7, Meghypena. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 393, pr. syn. 

g lentiginosa, Grote. 
1873. Grote, Bull. Butt. Soc. Nat. Sei., I, 87, Meghypena. 

Ground color brown, varying somewhat in shade from a violaceous 
gray to light chocolate brown. Head and thorax concolorous, abdomen 
a little paler. Primaries with the markings quite sharply detined, mot- 
tled by numerous brown or biackish strigve, which are transverse, short, 
and rivulous, not connected to form continuous lines. Transverse 
anterior line yellow'sh, more or less evident and more or less marked 
outwardly by a black line or shade, making one large outward bend in 
the submedian interspace. Transverse posterior line yellowish, pre- 
ceded by a brown or black shade line, upright to the median vein, 
thence with a little incurve, obliquely to the inner margin, forming 
thus an obtuse angulation on the median vein. Subterminal line pale, 
indefined, marked by white scales, sometimes also by blackish spots; 
but more usuaily by a dusky preceding shade. In course it is sinuate, 
with a prominent medial outcurve. <A series of more or less marked 
brown terminal lunules. Fringes a little waved or scalloped. Apex 
usually paler, inferiorly margined by a dark-brown oblique shade, 
which merges into the ground color. Ordinary spots well marked, 
black. Orbicular small, round; reniform Junate or kidney-shaped. In 
the submedian interspace there is a distinct tendency toward a darker 
Shade to connect the median lines, which here approach each other 
closely. Secondaries varying from fuscous gray to nearly blackish, 
the fringes paler; sometimes with a faint discal lunule, and more rarely 
with traces of transverse strige similar to those on the primaries. 
seneath, varying from luteous gray to smoky, with brown transverse 
strigze more or less distinct and most obvious on secondaries; a more 
or less marked outer line and a discal lunule, usually obsolete on 
primaries and promiment on the secondaries. On the secondaries there 
is often a broad, darker margin, and this is sometimes indicated on the 
primaries. 


Goo tae ee 


sr 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 107 


Expanse of wings, 30 to 39 mm.—1.20 to 1.55 inches. 

HaABiraT.—Canada; New York in July; Northern and Eastern 
States. 

This is the largest of our species in expanse of wings, though not so 
robust as male Bb. madefactalis, and seems to be confined to a northern 
“ange, none of my specimens being from any locality much south of 
Albany, while it seems to be scarcely common anywhere. Mr. Grote, 
in stating the differences between lis Bb. lentiginosa and Bb. vellifera, 
very fully detailed the differences between the sexes, for such is the 
relation these species bear to each other. The male (lentiginosa) is 
larger, somewhat more robust, and the colors are dull, the contrast 
little marked. 

The species is peculiar by the rivulous, brown, transverse strigw, and 
by the long, straight palpi, which scarcely differ in the sexes. The 
apices of the primaries are more than usually pointed, and the outer 
margin is unusually excavated below that pomt. In all these charae- 
ters, but especially in the first mentioned, the species is like Hypena 
rather than Bomolocha, and is an intermediate type. If others are 
found fully agreeing with it Mr. Grote’s genus Meghypena may again 
come to be used. 


Bomolocha citata, Grote. 


1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., 1V, 101, Hypena. 
1876. Grote, Check List Noctuidie, 45, Bomolocha. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 44, 392, = Hypena idwusalis. 
1894. Butler, Entomologist, XX VII, 50, an sp. dist. 

trituberalis, Zeller. 
1872. Zeller, Verh., k. k. Zool. Bot. Ges., XXII, pl. 11, fig. 6, Hypena. 
1882. Grote, New List Lepidoptera, 44, pr. syn. 

Ground color rather pale chocolate brown, varying in shade. Head 
and thorax concolorous. Abdomen more fuscous or smoky; concolorous 
with the secondaries. Primaries with a somewhat -oblique, irregular 
patch in the median space darker brown, and an oblique shade from 
apex extending inward to the transverse posterior line at about the 
inedian vein. Basal space the lightest portion of the wing. Trans- 
verse anterior line brown, slender, not prominent, forming a long out- 
ward angle in the submedian interspace. An oblique line of raised 
black scales runs nearly parallel and only a little within this line, so far 
as it extends outwardly, but continues in the same course to the inter- 
nal vein, where it joins the pale, prominent line. Between this black 
line and the median line the dark central portion of the wing is bounded. 
Median line pale, dark margined inwardly, outwardly oblique to vein 35, 
with asmall angle on the cell, then inwardly oblique, with little incurves 
in the interspaces. Beyond this line a bluish-gray shade sufiuses the 
space to the subterminal line, cut only by the oblique dark shade from 
below apex. Transverse posterior lme dusky, followed by a paler-shade 
line, even or feebly lunulated, somewhat dilated on the costa, in general 


108 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


course with avery even or not great outcurve. This line is often obscure, 
and the pale line is accepted as the true transverse posterior line: which 
itis not. Subterminal line whitish, denticulate, a httle marked by pre- 
ceding black scales; sometimes interrupted. Three white costal dots 
before the apex, which is whitish or gray. An interrupted black ter- 
minal line, preceded by a white line. Fringes usually long, brown at 
base, with a black interline; smoky at tip. The ordinary spots are 
composed of small patches of elevated scales. Secondaries fuscous to 
smoky or blackish, immaculate. Beneath gray to smoky, immaculate 
except for a blackish terminal line and a white anteapical costal blotch 
on primaries, which is frequently absent. 

Expanse of wings, 17.5 to 19 im.=0.70 to 0.76 inch. 

Haprrar.—New York to Texas; Florida; Illinois in August and 
October; Texas in July. 

A specimen from the United States National Museum is marked “No. 
2584, on Urena labiata; Iss. March 29, 1882.” 

This little species is not common in collections, though probably not 
rare 1n nature. 

Its synonymy, unfortunately, is scarcely settled. In my studies in 
the British Museum I found a specimen which I took as the type of 
Hypena ideusalis, Walker, and which I considered the same as H, citata, 
Grote, and so referred it 1 my catalogue. Mr. Butler writes, later, 
that this is a mistake, and that Walker’s species is not even a Hypena. 
The description somewhat bears out Mr. Butler’s statement, and I have 
apparently made some mistake, though how I can not conceive. I 
van hardly believe that I would have failed to recognize this species, 
however poor. On the other hand, Mr. Butler suggests that Mr. Grote’s 
species 1s Guenée’s Hypena exoletalis, from Brazil (Gn. Delt., 29). The 
description is fairly applicable except as to size, Guenée giving 25 mm. for 
the female, while no specimens I have ever seen exceeded 19 mm. Yet 
Mr. Butler may prove to be right when sufficient material is at hand. 

The species is the smallest in our fauna, in ludicrous contrast to the 
only other species with long, straight palpi. The oblique line of elevated 
scales and the false, pale, transverse posterior line are characteristic 
features, and distinguish the species. The male is a little more robust 
than the female, but I have noted no other differences. 


Bomolocha annulalis, Grote. 
1876. Grote, Check List Noctuidw, 45, Bomolocha. 

“This brown and light purple Texan species differs by the sagittate, 
pale, subterminal line becoming white at apices, and followed by dark 
marks. <A fine white line bordering inwardly the dark line on the 
terminal margin. A dark diffuse shade from the disk crossing the sub- 
terminal line and extending upwardly to apex. Transverse anterior 
line dentate; transvese posterior line continuous and nearly even. 
Beneath the apical pale dots are prominent. Belfrage No. 213, expanse 
26 min.” 


= 


2 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 109 


The type in the British Museum represents a species I had not pre- 
viously seen, and is not represented in any collection before me. 

Mr. Grote places it between B. abalinealis and B. achatinalis (made- 
factalis). 

Genus LOMANALTES, (Grote. 
1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., I, 13. 

Head distinct, even somewhat prominent. Eyes large, naked, globose, 
prominent. Front quite narrow, with a pointed interantennal tuft. 
Ocelli distinct, situated halfway between the base of the antennie and 
the posterior limit of the head. Palpi long, straight in the female, a 
little oblique in the male, equaling in length the head and thorax com- 
bined in the former, and only a little shorter in the latter. Antenne 
simple in both sexes, males with small lateral ciliations. Thorax small, 
abdomen slight, cylindrical, more conic in the male, equaling or slightly 
exceeding the anal angle of the secondaries, with small truncate dorsal 
tufts. Legs long, moderately stout, closely scaled in both sexes, with- 
out special modification in the male. Primaries pointed, the apex 
acute, outer margin very oblique and only a little curved, costa a little 
depressed centrally. 

This genus is very doubtfully distinct from Bomolocha, differing 
really only in the wing form. The palpal character relied on by Mr. 
Grote is not only variable in the specimens, but is actually paralleled 
in Bomolocha. Yet the insect does convey a somewhat distinetive 
impression, and I have therefore retained the genus, the more readily 
as it seems to be somewhat intermediate between Bomolocha and 
Hypena, The single species has essentially the markings of B. decep- 
talis. 

Lomanaltes eductalis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 36, Hypena. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 44, 390, Lomanatltes. 
letulus, Grote. 
‘1873. Grote, Bull Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., I, 14, pl. 1, figs. 12, 18, Lomanatlies. 
1893. Smith, Bull. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 44,390, pr. syn. 

Ground color a pearly gray, with a more or less marked brown suf- 
fusion, deepest and most marked in the male. Head and thorax con- 
colorous. Abdomen paler, fuscous gray or yellowish, the edges of the 
segments narrowly pale marked. Primaries with the space beyond the 
transverse posterior line more or less bluish gray, interrupted by a dark 
shade preceding the subterminal line and another which extends along 
the outer margin, leaving a pale apical space. Transverse anterior line 
rusty yellow, the edges a little darker, nearly upright, but making a 
somewhat abrupt outward bend on the internal vein. Transverse pos- 
terior line yellowish, with a rusty internal edging and a following dusky 
shade line which is often obsolete; in course it is very even, inwardly 
oblique, with a small, obtuse outward bend on the median vein, which 
is sometimes almost obsolete. Subterminal line pale, marked by a pre- 
ceding dusky shade, somewhat outcurved in the central part of its 


110 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


course. Occasionally black scales, more or less massed into loose spots, 
also precede the line and further define it. The terminal space darkens 
beyond this line to the margin, but leaves the apical portion free and 
pale. A brown terminal line followed by a yellowish line at the base 
of the fringes. The ordinary spots small and marked by elevated black 
scales. Secondaries yellowish fuscous to blackish, immaculate or with 
a lunate spot, usually with a well-marked dark terminal line. Beneath, 
fuscous to blackish, with a more or less marked extra median line and 
discal spot, both of which are sometimes obsolete. 

Expanse of wings, 21 to 26 mm. = 0.85 to 1.05 inches. 

Haprrat.—Nova Scotia to Virginia; Minnesota; Central States; 
New York in May. 

A specimen from the National Museum, collection C. V. Riley, is 
marked “ May 6, ’84, on Alder.” 

This little species does not seem to be common, but is easily recog- 
nized by the very even median lnes closely resembling in course those 
of Bomolocha deceptalis, and by the pointed fore wings. 

There is little variation except in the shade of brown over the gray 
base and the consequent contrast of color. The male is darker and 
more even in tint as a rule, the bluish shade dull and obscure. 


Genus PLATHYPENA, Grote. 


1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., I, 38. 

Head moderate in size, front very narrow, with a pointed tuft. Eyes 
large, prominent, globose, naked. Ocelli distinct, situated close to the 
compound eye and midway between the base of the antenne and the 
posterior angle of the eye. Tongue moderate. Palpi moderate in 
length, decidedly shorter and a little oblique in the male; longer and 
straight in the female; the terminal joint very short and obtuse in both 
sexes. Antenne long, extending beyond apical third of primaries; 
simple in both sexes, the male finely ciliated only; inserted well for- 
ward, almost on the front. Body moderate in the female, robust in the 
male, the thoracie vestiture scaly, a little loose in both sexes, perhaps 
a little more prominently so in the male. Abdomen conic, cylindrical, 
extending tothe anal angle of the secondaries, quite prominently tufted 
on the dorsum. Legs quite robust, moderate in length, the spurs of 
the middle and hind tibie not excessively long. Under side of body 
somewhat woolly in the male. Wings large as a whole. Primaries 
narrow, apices rectangular or a little acute, outer margin moderately 
rounded, oblique; inner margin sinuate, the hind angle prominent, a 
little produced, more so in the male. Secondaries broad, outer margin 
quite evidently excavated below the apex in the female, almost even in 
the male. 

This genus differs from Hypena in the more robust structure, the 
difference in bulk between the sexes—the male being larger, more 
robust and broader winged—in the short palpi and in the sinuate inner 


: A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. i i 


margin of primaries, which is incurved before and makes prominent 
the hind angle. 

From Bomolocha the genus differs in the form of the primaries and 
in the proportionately broad secondaries, - It is thus intermediate in 
many characters between Bomolocha and Hypena, while it possesses 
combinations peculiar to itself and sufficient to authorize it as valid. 


Plathypena scabra, Fabricius. 


1794. Fabricius, Entomologia Systematica, Suppl., IV, 448, Hyblaa. 

1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 40, Hypena. 

1859. Walker. Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 34, Lrypena. 

1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., 1V, 102, Hypena. 

1873. Lintner, Canadian Entomologist, V, 81, Hypena. 

1873. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., I, 38, Plathypena. 

1880. Riley, American Entomologist, III, 8, Hypena. 

1880. Coquillett, Canadian Entomologist, XII, 43, larva. 

1881. Coquillett, Canadian Entomologist, XIIL, 157, larva, 
erectalis, Guenée. 

1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 40, Hypena. 

1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, 35, ? an var. pr. 

1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 102, Hypena. 

1873. Lintner, Canadian Entomologist, V, 81, = 9 scabra. 
palpalis, Haworth. 

1812. Haworth, Lepidoptera Britannica, 361, Crambus. 

1829. Stephens, Hlustrations British Entomology, Haust., IV, 12, Hypena. 

1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 40, pr. syn. 

1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 34, pr. syn. 
crassatus, Haworth. 

1812. Haworth, Lepidoptera Britannica, 336, Crambus. 

1854. Guenée. Species General, Deltoides, 40, ? — H. erectalis. 

1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 35, — H. erectalis. 
obesalis, Stephens. 

1829. Stephens, Hlustrations British Entomology, Haust., IV, 11, Hypena. 

1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 35, = erectalis. 
subrufalis, Grote. 

1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomoligical Soc., IV, 102, var. erectalis. 

1893. Smith, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, 395, pr. syn. 

Ground color a dark purplish or smoky brown. Head and thorax 
concolorous. Abdomen more smoky, like the secondaries. Primaries 
dusky to the transverse posterior line, then with bluish powderings, 
which scarcely relieve the somber tint in the male, but are quite con- 
trasting inthe female. In the latter sex the inferior half of the median 
space often becomes shaded with yellowish red-brown, sometimes quite 
contrastingly. Transverse anterior line red-brown, preceded by pale in 
the best marked specimens, outwardly bent, with three long outward 
angulations, rarely complete, and in the male quite frequently entirely 
obsolete. Transverse posterior line black or brown, outwardly bent ever 
the celland almost rigid beneath. The line is marked through the lower 
part of its course by elevated scales, which are most prominent on the 
inner margin, Subterminal line interrupted, pale, preceded by black 


spots, rather evenly bisinuate, often quite contrasting in the female, and 
as inconspicuous in the male, A brown terminal line, which is rarely 


tt? BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


interrupted, preceded by undefined bluish lunules in the interspaces. 
Lu the male the apex is blue powdered, the terminal space else quite 
even. In the female the apical patch is more contrasting, inferiorly 
limited by a blackish streak, the terminal space being irregularly and 
variably mottled with bluish brown and black. Opposite the hind 
angle is a longitudinal black mark, which crosses the subterminal line. 
Usually a narrow black line connects the median lines in the subme- 
dian interspace, and another connects the ordinary spots, which are 
much reduced and marked by black elevated scales. The basal space 
is also sometimes blue powdered or inferiorly brown. In the male the 
ordinary spots are sometimes hardly evident. Secondaries deep smoky- 
brown, varying a little in tinge toward brown or black. Beneath, uni- 
formly brown or blackish; the secondaries with a more or less evident 
discal spot. 

Expanse of wings, 27 to 34 mm.= 1.10 to 1.35 inches. 

HABITAT.—Nova Scotia to Texas; east of the Rocky Mountains. 
June to October. 

This is our most abundant species, and in some respects a most vari- 
able one. When the sexes are separated, however, the range of varia- 
tion in each is much reduced, and is usually a difference in the amount 
of contrast, rather than in actual maculation. The species is easily 
recognized by the characters already given. The subterminal line in 
its course and the elevated scales marking it are characteristic. 


Genus HYPENA, Schrank. 
1802. Schrank, Fauna Boiea, II, 2, 163. 
1854. Guenée, Species General, Deltoides, 25. 
1857. Lederer, Noctuinen Europas, 214. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Lep. Heterocera, X VI, 22. 

Head moderate in size or small, front narrow, with an unusually long 
interantennal tuft, sometimes exceeding the head by its own length. 
Eyes prominent, globose, naked. Ocelli distinct, situated close to the 
compound eye, at about the middle of the vertex. Palpi long or very 
long, sometimes exceeding the head by more than the length of the 
head and thorax combined, similar in the sexes, directed straight for- 
ward, greatly compressed, the upright vestiture unusually long, even 
on the terminal joint. The second joint in some of the species is a little 
arquate, the concavity inferior. Antenne simple in the female, slightly 
ciliated in the male. Body slight; thorax small; abdomen reaching to 
or exceeding the anal angle of the secondaries, with quite a prominent 
dorsal tuft at base, and smaller tuftings on 5 or 4 other segments. 
Legs long and slender, closely scaled, not specially modified, the usual 
tibial spurs long and tnequal. Wings large, primaries long and nar- 
row, the apices pointed, outer margin oblique or obtusely produced at 
the middle, a little excavated below the apex. Secondaries proportion- 
ately very large and broad, the outer margin a little excavated below 
the apex. There is no difference in essential structure between the 


* 


. A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. Ms 


> 
> 


"7-¥aee ear 


mh 


sexes, Save that the male has the primaries distinetly broader and is 
always much more evenly colored, without contrasting lines or shades, 

The genus is an easily distinguished one in our fauna. The only 
other narrow winged genus we have is Plathypena, and in that the palpi 
are decidedly shorter, oblique in the male, while the latter sex is also 
very much more robust and has woolly clothing beneath. [Finally the 
wings have the inner margin sinuate and the anal angle marked or a 
little produced, while in Hypena the margin is even and the angle obtuse, 
or at least not at all prominent. 

All the species are marked by tufts of elevated scales indicating the 


ordinary spots and by an additional little patch below the median vein 


and at about the middle of the median space. 
- As thus restricted we have four species of Hypena, one of them new. 

At the head I place H. humuli, an old friend, which differs from all the 
others by the even outer margin of the primaries, no trace or any angu- 
lation occurring in any specimen. The species is further distinguished 
by having a sinuate transverse posterior line, distinctly outeurved over 
the reniform. In this it agrees with Plathypena scabra, but differs 
from all its congeners. 

The transverse posterior line, by the bye, furnishes an exceedingly 
useful and reliable character for the recognition of species in this 
genus, being absolutely constant, always distinct in the female, and 
usually also in the male. 

H, modesta is « new species, which has been probably confused with 
H. californica. It is of a quiet color, powdery, in the male almost a 
uniform pearl gray, in the female a little more reddish, with better 
defined markings, the subterminal space with a markedly blue-gray 
tinge, which can scarcely be called contrasting. The transverse pos- 
terior line is rigidly oblique, without curve, bend, or angulation to the 
submedian interspace, where it is inwardly bent, forming a tooth on 
the internal vein. 

H. californicais decidedly larger, always reddish or darker brown, in 
the female with sharp contrasts against the yellow base, the pale colors 
all yellowish and never bluish. The transverse posterior line, while 
much the same as that of H. modesta as a whole, is irregular, a little 
denticulated on the veins and curved in the interspaces; while the 
inward tooth on the internal vein is much deeper and more acute as a 
rule, to which, however, there are frequent exceptions. H. decorata 
nearly or quite equals H. californica in size, but is of a yet richer and 
deeper brown, with little admixture of yellow, and the subterminal 
space shot with bluish; the contrasts in the female being bright if not 
strong. The transverse posterior line is even, a very little sinuated to 
the submedian interspace where it forms an outward tooth, followed by 
one of equal length inwardly on theinternal vein. It thus differs from 
both those previously mentioned by the outward tooth above the inward 
one. 


7862—No. 45 5 





114 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


The three species last named, which are from the Pacific Coast or 
the Northwest, may be further distinguished in that H. decorata has 
the palpi distinctly shorter than in the two others, resembling H. 
humuli in that respect and in the less marked angulation of the outer 
margin, which in the male is very slight. H. californica and H. modesta 
have excessively long palpi, proportionately longest in the latter, while 
the outer margin is more angulated; also most obviously in H. modesta 
and particularly in the male. 

We can follow the modifications of the transverse posterior line in 
much the same way. HH. humuli has it irregularly sinuate and bent, 
with an outeurve in the submedian interspace and an inward tooth on 
the internal vein. H. decorata has the line nearly rigid, only a little 
sinuated, has the outcurve in the interspace less marked, but the 
inward angle distinct. H, californica has the line more rigid, but with 
small denticulations on the veins; the outcurve in the interspace has 
disappeared, while the inward angle is acute and well marked. Finally, 
H. modesta has the line absolutely rigid and even to the inward angula- 
tion on vein 1. 

ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES OF HYPENA. 


Outer margin notangulatedtat middle === 222 Se een ee eee eee en eee ae HUMULI. 
Outer margin more or less outwardly bent at middle. 
Palpi not excessively long; transverse posterior line with an outward bend in 
the submedianAnbersp ace ese) ae cease ee ae eee DECORATA, 
Palpi excessively long; transverse posterior line without an outward bend or 
curve in the submedian interspace. 
Base of ground color yellow; subterminal space yellow; size larger, 


CALIFORNICA. 
Base of ground color gray; subterminal space bluish gray; size sinaller, 
MODESTA. 


Hypena humuli, Harris. 


1835. Harris, Catalogue Insects Massachusetts, 74, Crambus. 
1841. Harris, Rept. Insects Massachusetts, 345, Hypena. 
1855. Fitch, Trans. N. Y. State Agl. Soc. XV, 555, pl. 1, fig. 1, Hypena. 
1856. Fitch Ist and 2nd Rept. Insects N. Y., 323, pl. 1, fig. 1, Hypena. 
1862. Harris, Injurious Insects, Flint ed., 477, fig. 237, Hypena. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., [V, 101, Hypena. 
1878. Lintner, Entomological Contributions, IV, 128, Hypena. 
evanidalis, Robinson. 
1870. Robinson, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., N. Y., IX, 311, Hypena. 
1872. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., [V, 101, Hypena. 
1872. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, IV, 111, Hypena. 
1873. Grote, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., IV, 309, pl. 1, fig. 87, Hypena. 
1878. Lintner, Entomological Contributions, IV, 128, pr. syn. 
germanalis, Walker. 
1859. Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Heterocera, XVI, 35, Hypena. 
1874. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., II, 52, pr. syn. 
var. olivacea, Grote. 
1873. Grote, Canadian Entomologist, V, 226, Hypena. 
1882. Grote, New List, 44, pr. var. 
var. albopunctata, Tepper. 
1881. Tepper, Bull. BkIn. Entomological Soc., IV, 2, pl. 1, fig. 5, Hypena. 
1891. Smith, List Lepidoptera, 64, pr. var. 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 115 


Ground color, a grayish brown, varying in tint; in the male with 
blackish powderings, in the female more or less suffused with reddish. 
Body of the ground color; abdomen more gray. Primaries in the male 
even, without contrast, the lines vaguely traceable in most instances. 
In the female the upper portion of the median space is darker brown, 
contrasting with the paler shade elsewhere in the wing. This brown 
shade usually extends less markedly to the upper part of the basal 
space, while its outer inferior angle is very near to the termination of 
a blackish subapical oblique streak. In some specimens of both sexes 
the wings are transversely strigate, the strige brown, rivulous, not 
continuous, in the females marked only through the darker portions of 
the wing. ‘Transverse anterior line pale, more or less brown or dark 
margined, strongly toothed outwardly on the median and submedian 
veins; rarely distinct, more often entirely obsolete, especially in the 
male. ‘Transverse posterior line pale or whitish, arising above the reni- 
form and abruptly outcurved over this spot, as a whole nearly upright 
below it, but with an outward angle in the submedian interspace and 
an inward tooth on the internal vein. This line is usually more evi- 
dent in the male. Subterminal line punctiform, consisting of black 
dots followed by white seales, the line very evenly parallel with the 
outer margin. The line is best marked in bright females; it tends to lose 
the white scales in pale specimens, the black dots alone remaining, and 
tends to lose the black spots in dark specimens in which the white scales 
only are obvious. Ina few somber gray males even this line is lost. A 
series of dark or black terminal lunules preceded by white seales. 
Orbicular a little round tuft of upright black scales. Reniform marked 
by two such spots. Beneath the median vein, about the center of the 
median space, is another small, round tuft of elevated scales. Second- 
aries an even gray to fuscous, with a brown or darker terminal line. 
3eneath, more or less powdery, smoky to reddish, the primaries darker 
on the disk and usually immaculate, the secondaries paler, usually 
with a discal dot and a rather well-marked median dusky band. 

Expanse of wings, 27.5 to 33 mm.—1.10 to 1.32 inches. 

Haprrar.—Northern United States, from the Atlantic to the Pacific; 
Canada; British Columbia; southward to Alabama. Colorado in Sep- 
tember, October; British Columbia May, July, September, October; 
Kansas in April; Delaware in August; New York July, September, 
October. 

This is at once the most common and widely distributed species of 
the genus. Its larvie feeds on the hop-vine leaf, and probably wher- 
ever that plant occurs, there our species will also be found. There isa 
considerable amount of variation in the ground color, that of the males 
ranging from an even, sordid reddish brown to almost black. The 
palest of the forms is H. olivacea, Grote, the darkest is H. albopunctata, 
Tepper, the intermediate and typical form is H. germanalis, Walker, 
The female of H, olivacea is H. evanidalis, Grote. The coloration seems 


116 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


to depend somewhat upon locality, the palest specimens coming from 
northern New York, while the darkest forms are confined to the Pacific 
Coast. 

The structural features of the species have been previously referred 

to and need not be again rehearsed here. 
Hypena decorata, Smith. 

1884. Smith, Bull. BkIn. Entomological Soc., VII, 4, Hypena. 

Ground color a rich red brown with bluish gray relieving scales. 
Head and thorax concolorous, the latter speckled with blue seales in 
the female. Abdomen like the secondaries. Primaries quite mark- 
edly transversely strigate, many of the strigze continued almost 
entirely across the wing. The subterminal space is quite contrast- 
ingly blue gray just beyond the transverse posterior line; but becomes 
of the brown base before the subterminal line. Transverse anterior 
line pale, outwardly marked with brown, with an acute outward tooth 
on the median vein. ‘Transverse posterior line pale, preceded by black, 
very even, oblique, a little sinuated, with a marked outward bend in 
the submedian interspace and a well-marked inward tooth on the inter- 
nal vein. Subterminal line punctiform, the spots black, followed by 
white scales, as a whole a little sinuate. A lunate blackish terminal 
line preceded by whitish scales. Beneath the pale apex is a distinct 
deep brown oblique shade, extending nearly half way through the 
subterminal space. Orbicular a round patch of elevated black scales. 
Reniform a lunule of elevated seales. A distinct black line sur- 
mounted by a paler shade nearly connecting the two spots. Second- 
aries yellowish fuscous, even, with a brown terminal line and paler 
yellow fringes. Beneath, powdery yellowish, the apices brown, both 
wings with a brown extra-median line; primaries with an incomplete 
subterminal line, which is white dotted near the costa; secondaries 
with a diseal spot. 

Kxpanse of wings, 31 to 34 mm.=1.25 to 1.55 inches. 

HAbirat.—California; Vancouver. 

This species was collected by Mr. Hy. Edwards, and I have seen no 
specimens other than those from which I originally described. Only 
the female is before me at present, but the male differs only in the 
more even color of the primaries, the contrasts being less marked. 
The character of the subterminal line further relates this species with 
HA, humuli, while in,the very distinctly scalloped fringes the species is 
unique, differing from all others of our forms. There is little chance 
of mistaking it. ; 

Hypena californica, Behr. 
1870. Behr, Trans. Am. Entomological Soc., III, 23, Hypena. 

Ground color a somewhat pale yellow, more or less shot with red 
brown, varying somewhat in shade. Head and thorax concolorous, 
the latter with the disk often darker. Abdomen concolorous with the 
secondaries. Primaries with the pale color predominating in the 
female, the brown markings contrasting. In the male the wing is 


hae 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. RIE 


usually much darker, gray or smoky in its shadings, without marked 
contrasts, yet as a rule the markings fairly evident. Through the 
costal region, and sometimes the other parts of the wings as well, 
rivulous brown lines or strigie are visible. Transverse anterior line of 
the pale ground color, followed by a line of the brown shade, very 


strongly bent outwardly, with long acute outward teeth on the median 


vein and in the submedian interspace. Transverse posterior line brown, 
often marked only by the contrast between the median darker and the 
subterminal paler shades, in course slightly sinuate, finely denticulate, 
with an abrupt and usually long acute inward tooth on vein 11. Subter- 
minal line of the pale ground color, broad, continuous, somewhat dif- 
fuse, rather irregularly sinuate, preceded by a brown shade which 
darkens the outer half of the subterminal space, and additionally 
emphasized by a series of preceding black spots which sometimes 
develop into a more prominent mark or shade opposite the hind angle. 
Apex pale, inferiorly marked by a black oblique streak, which is out- 
wardly diffuse and does not cross the subterminal line. A series of 
black terminal lunules, preceded by white scales. Fringes alternated 
with yellow and brown. The median space in the female is brown 
superiorly, usually also along the transverse posterior line, and some- 
times the entire lower part is also more or less marked with this same 
color. Ordinary spots marked by gray raised scales, and connected 
by arather broad black line, which is distinet in ali the females seen 
by me, but tends to become obsolete in the males. A round dot of 
black raised scales below the median vein in the median space. Sec- 
ondaries even, pale ocherous or yellowish white, with a brown terminal 
line. Beneath, dull powdery, with prominent, broad, brown, extra- 
median lines on all wings, an incomplete subterminal line on primaries, 
a discal spot on secondaries. 

Expanse of wings, 28 to 33 mm. = 1.12 to 1.32 inches. 

Hapriratr.—California; Vancouver; British Columbia. 

This species seems not uncommon locally. Dr. Belir’s deseription is 
of a most unsatisfactory character and would not have sufficed to dis- 
tinguish the present species from H. modesta without the material in 
the Hy. Edwards collection, which contained compared specimens. 

Besides the characters already enumerated this species is distin- 
guished from both the preceding by the continuous subterminal line, 
and by the subapical black streak which does not cross this line. In 
both these characters it agrees with H. modesta, than which it is 
larger and with a different ground color. The distinctive features will 
be more fully given with the new species. 


Hypena modesta, new species. 


Ground color luteous gray with bluish gray powderings, giving the 
insect as a whole a pearly gray appearance. Head and thorax concol- 
orous with the palest color of the primaries. Abdomen paler, of the 


118 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


color of the secondaries. Primaries in the male almost evenly pearl 
to fawn gray, the maculation never distinct, often scarcely traceable; 
in the female the base is a pale grayish luteous more or less marked 
with brown, and black powdered to the transverse posterior line, 
beyond which is a bluish gray shade which darkens to brown or smoky 
before the subterminal line, continuing to the outer margin. The apex 
is pale, sharply limited inferiorly by a Slightly darker tint of the 
darker wing shade. The usual transverse strige are marked on the 
costal space only. Transverse anterior line Slightly paler, broad, 
diffuse, often barely traceable, outwardly bent, and with two strongly 
marked teeth, as in H. californica. Transverse posterior line usually 
marked only by the difference in shade between the median and sub- 
terminal spaces; sometimes, however, emphasized by a slight reddish 
suffusion. It is nearly rigidly oblique to the submedian interspace, 
where it forms an inward tooth on the internal vein. Subterminal line 
usually continuous, pale, sometimes preceded by black dots, often 
obsolete or marked only with black dots in the male. A more or less 
obvious broken terminal line, preceded by paler scales in the inter- 
Spaces. Ordinary spots marked by elevated scales, which are gray 
outwardly and black centered. A little tuft of elevated scales in the 
median space below the cell, and another on the median vein close to 
base—this latter being more or less evident in all the species. Second- 
aries a dirty pale yellowish gray, with a more or less marked brown 
marginal line. Beneath, a dirty gray, powdery, with a rather broad 
extra median line on all wings, an incomplete subterminal line on 
primaries, and a discal lunule on secondaries. 

Expanse of wings, 24 to 29 mm.=0.96 to 1.16 inches. 

HABITAT.-—Los Angeles, Cal., April, July, October. 

Nine specimens are before me, all of them from the United States 
National Museum collection, marked “ Through C. V. Riley;” some col- 
lected by Mr. Coquillett, others by Mr. Koebele. Of the latter, two 
bear a red number 194, indicating biological notes in the possession of 
Dr. Riley. 

This species has been confused with H. californica, with which it 
agrees in most characters. It is, however, decidedly smaller in the 
average expanse, and the wings have a modest gray shade, in decided 
contrast to the distinet bright yellow of its ally, while the ornamenta- 
tion is never so cont rasting. The character of the transverse posterior 
line is further distinctive, and so are the proportionately longer palpi 
and more evidently produced angulation of the outer margin. 

It is asomewhat interesting fact that on the Pacific Coast there should 
be four species of Hypena, only one of which extends to the Atlantie 
Coast, while on the other hand the species of Bomolocha are numerous 
in the East, while none are peculiar to the Pacific Coast. 





—_— 


Biot OF THE 


10. 


ue 
12 


-~. 


13. 


14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 


18. 
BE 


20. 
21. 


{The names of species recognized in this work are in roman. 


Tribe HELIINI. 


Genus EpizEuxts, Hiibner. 


m 


lubricalis, Geyer. 

phealis, Guenée. 

surrectalis, Walker. 

var. occidentalis, Smith. 

E. denticulalis, Harvey. 

EE. rotundalis, Walker. 
borealis, Smith. 
forbesii, French. 

3. scobialis, Grote. 

I. laurentii, Smith. 

E. americalis, Guenée. 
scriptipennis, Walker. 

E. majoralis, Smith. 

E. wemula, Hiibner. 

mollifera, Walker. 

herminioides, Walker. 

effusalis, Walker. 

concisa, Walker. 


Tribe HERMINIINI. 
Genus ZANCLOGNATHA, Lederer. 


Z. lituralis, Hiibner. 

Z. theralis, Walker. 
deceptricalis, Zeller. 
gypsalis, Grote. 

Z. minoralis, Smith. 

Z. inconspicualis, Grote. 

Z. lievigata, Grote. 
obsoleta, Smith. 

Z. punctiformis, Smith. 

Z. atrilineella, Grote. 

Z. pedipilalis, Guenée. 

Z. cruralis, Guenée. 
jacchusalis, Walker. 

Z. obscuripennis, Grote. 

Z. protumnosalis, Walker. 

minimalis, Grote. 

Z. marcidilinea, Grote. 

Z. ochreipennis, Grote. 





23. 


| 24. 


Heese 
Zit. 


bo 
=~! 


28. 


29. 


| 30. 


alle 





32. 


33. 


» 


or 


ow. 


36. 


of. 


38. 


> 
39. 


40. 


Et 
Et. 
H. 


25 


Ss 


Cx 
C. 


B. 


R. 


R. 


ow of 


R. 
.sobrialis, Walker. 


GENERA AND SPECIES OF DELTOID MOTHS. 


Synonyms are in italics. ] 


Genus HorMisa, Walker. 


. absorptalis, Walker. 


nubilifascia, Grote. 
litophora, Grote. 
bivittata, Grote. 
orciferalis, Walker. 
pupillaris, Grote. 
hartii, French. 


Genus PHILOMETRA. Grote. 


metonalis, Walker. 
gqaosalis, Walker. 
longilabris, Grote. 
eumelusalis, Walker. 
serraticornis, Grote. 


Genus CHYTOLITA, Grote. 


morbidalis, Guenée. 
petrealis, Grote. 


Genus BLEPTINA, Guenée. 


caradrinalis, Guenée 
cloniasalis, Walker. 


- medialis, Smith. 
3. inferior, Grote. 


Genus TETANOLITA, Grote. 


-mynesalis, Walker. 


livalis, Grote. 


. floridana, Smith. 
.palligera, Smith. 


Genus RENIA, Guenée. 


salusalis, Walker. 
brerirostralis, Grote. 
discoloralis, Guenée. 
Sallacialis, Walker. 
generalis, Walker. 
thraxalis, Walker. 
fraternalis, Smith. 


restrictalis, Grote. 


. larvalis, Grote. 


119 


120 
41. 
42, 


43. 


44, 


46. 


47. 


48. 
49. 


51. 


52 


R. clitosalis, Walker. 
centralis, Grote. 

. factiosalis, Walker. 
plenilinealis, Grote. 
alutalis, Grote. 

R. flavipunctalis, Geyer. 
phalerosalis, Walker. 
heliusalis, Walker. 
pastoralis, Grote. 
belfragei, Grote. 

R. pulverosalis, Smith. 


I 


we 


Genus HyYPENULA, Grote. 


5. H.cacuminalis, Walker. 


biferalis, Walker. 
opacalis, Grote. 


Genus HETEROGRAMMA, Guenée. 


H. pyramusalis, Walker. 
gyasalis, Walker. 
rurigena, Grote. 


Genus GABERASA, Walker. 


G. ambigualis, Walker. 
g bifidalis, Grote. 
Q indivisalis, Grote. 
Genus DERCETIS, Grote. 
D. vitrea, Grote. 


D. pygmiea, Grote. 


Genus PALTHIS, Hiibner. 


. P.angulalis, Hiibner. 


aracinthusalis, Walker. 
P. asopialis, Guenée. 


Tribe HYPENINI. 
Genus CaPpis, Grote. 


C. curvata, Grote. 
Genus Sata, Hiibner. 


3. S.interpuncta, Grote. 


saligna, Zeller. 
rufa, Grote. 


54. S. salicalis, Fabricius. 


or 
Ct 


Genus BOoMOLOCcHA, Hiibner. 


5. B.manalis, Walker. 





| 62. 





BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


56. B. baltimoralis, Guenée. 
beniqnalis, Walker. 
laciniosa, Zeller. 


57. B. bijugalis, Walker. 
| 1] aD ? 


pallialis, Zeller. 
Jfecialis, Grote. 


| 58. B.scutellaris, Grote. 


59. B. abalinealis, Walker. 


| 60. B. deceptalis, Walker. 


perangulalis, Harvey. 
61. B. madefactalis, Guenée. 
achatinalis, Zeller. 
damnosalis, Walker. 
caducalis, Walker. 
profecta, Grote. 


B. sordidula, Grote. 
| 63. B. umbralis, Smith. 
| 64. B. toreuta, Grote. © 


internalis, || Robinson. 
albisignalis, Zeller. 


65. B. edictalis, Walker. 


9 vellifera, Grote. 
g lentiginosa, Grote. 
66. B. citata, Grote. 
trituberalis, Zeller. 
. annulalis, Grote. 


o> 
=] 
oS 


Genus LOMANALTES, Grote. 


68. L. eductalis, Walker. 
lertulus, Grote. 


Genus PLATHYPENA, Grote. 


| 69. P. seabra, Fabricius. 


erectalis, Guenée. 
palpalis, Haworth. 
crassatus, Haworth. 
obesalis, Stephens. 
subrufalis, Grote. 


Genus HyPENa, Schrank. 


| 70. H. humuli, Harris. 


evanidalis, Robinson, 
germanalis, Walker. 
var. olivacea, Grote. 


var. albopunctata, Tepper. 


H. decorata, Smith. 
H. californica, Behr. 
H. modesta, Smith. 


~] -] 
9 


I 


0 


Sc tl i 


EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 


PLATE I. 


SPECIES OF THE GENUS EPIZEUXIS. 
1-5. E. lubriecalis. 
6. E. denticulalis. 
7-9. E. rotundalis. 
10. E. forbesii: from the type in Professor Forbes’ collection. 
) 11. E. scobialis. 
12. E. laurentii: from the male type. 
13. E. “ from the female type. 
} 14-16. E. americalis. 
_-:17, 18. E. majoralis: from two of the types. 
19-21. E. semula. 
PLATE II. 


SPECIES OF THE GENUS ZANCLOGNATHA. 


1-8. Zanclognatha lituralis. 

4,5. Z. theralis. 

6. Z. minoralis: from the type in the collection of the Michigan Agricultural College. 
2 7,8. Z. inconspicualis. 

9. Z. leevigata: from the female type. 

10. Z. S : from the male type: both in the collection of the American Ento- 
| mological Society. 
| 11-15. Z. leevigata: illustrating variation. 


. 16. This figure is missing. 

. 17. Z. levigata: showing fore legs with partly expanded tuftings. 

18. Z. atrilineella: from the type in the collection of the American Entomological 
Society. 


PLATE III. 


SPECIES OF THE GENUS ZANCLOGNATHA. 


ae 


Zanclognatha punctiformis: from the type in the collection of the United States 
National Museum: somewhat enlarged. 

aah pedipilalis : somewhat enlarged. 

pale ss : natural size. 

4-6. Z. cruralis. 

7. Z. obseuripennis: from the type in the collection of the American Entomological 

Society: somewhat enlarged. 

8-12. Z. protumnosalis. 

13. Z. protumnosalis: somewhat enlarged. 

14. Z. marcidilinea: somewhat enlarged. 

15. Z. se : from the type in the collection of the American Entomological 
Society: somewhat enlarged. 

- marcidilinea: from typical specimens in the callection of the American Ento- 


mologieal Society; slightly enlarged. 
> 121 


oo bd 


16. Z 


e 


cz? 





122 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


17,18. Z. ochreipennis: from two of the types in the collection of the American Ento- [ 
mological Society. 
19-21. Z. ochreipennis: all somewhat enlarged. 


PLATE IV. 
SPECIES OF THE GENERA HORMISA, PHILOMETRA, CHYTOLITA, AND TETANOLITA, 


1,2. Hormisa absorptalis 
3. H. litophora. 
4. H. bivittata. 
5. H. orciferalis. 
Gay. ca : from the type of Pallachira hartii in the collection of S. A. Forbes. 
7,8. Philometra metonalis. 
9,10. P. eumelusalis. 
11, 12. Chytolita morbidalis. 
13-15. C. petrealis. 
16-18. Tetanolita mynesalis. 
19-21. T. floridana: from the types in the collection of the United States National 
Museum. 
22-24. T. palligera. 
All the figures are slightly enlarged. 


PLATE V. 


SPECIES OF THE GENERA BLEPTINA, HETEROGRAMMA, GABERASA, DERCETIS, AND 
PALTHIS. 


1-5. Bleptina caradrinalis: all somewhat enlarged. 

6-7. B. medialis: from the types. 

8. B. inferior. 

92 Bias : from the type in the collection of the American Entomological 
Society: a little enlarged. 

10, 11. Heterogramma pyramusalis. 

12. Gaberasa ambigualis: male. 


13. a a : male: much enlarged. 
14-15. <5 nS : female. 

16. < o : female: much enlarged. 
17. Dercetis vitrea. 

18. ~ pygmea, 

19. Palthis angulalis: female. 

20. se wo : male. 

21-22. ** ee : female: both much enlarged. 
23. ««  asopialis: male. 

24. a “é : Same, much enlarged. 


25. ss a : female. 
PLATE VI. 
SPECIES OF THE GENUS RENIA. 

1. R. salusalis: male: a little enlarged. 
2,3. R.  ‘ : male: from types of R. brevirostralis in the collection of the American 

Entomological Society: somewhat enlarged. 
4,8. R. discoloralis: showing variations. 
9,10. R. fraternalis: from types in the collection of the United States National 


Museum. 
11. R. factiosalis. 
12-14. R. ue from types of Rk. plenilinealis in the collection of the American 


Entomological Society. 
15-17. R. factiosalis. 





—— ——s so 


A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 135 


PLATE VII. 
SPECIES OF THE GENUS RENIA. 


1. R. sobrialis, from the type of &. restrictalis in the collection of the American 
Entomological Society: a little enlarged. 

2-4. R. sobrialis. 

5,6. R. larvalis, from the types in the collection of the American Entomological 
Society: a little enlarged. 

7. R. larvalis. 

8. R. clitosalis. 

9. R. flavipunctalis: from the type of R. belfragei in the collection of the American 
Entomological Society. 

10-14. R. flavipunctalis. 

15,16. R. flavipunctalis: considerably enlarged. 

17,18. R. pulverosalis: from the types in the collection of the United States National 
Museum: somewhat enlarged. 

19. R. larvalis. 

PLATE VIII. 
SPECIES OF THE GENERA HYPENULA, CAPIS, SALIA, LOMANALTES, AND BOMOLOCHA. 


1,2. Hypenula cacuminals. 
3. Capis curvata. 
4. Salia salicalis. 
5-7. Lomanaltes eductalis. 


8. Bomolocha manalis: female. 

9. ss ae : male. 

10. oe baltimoralis: male. 
Le oe us : female. 
12. fs scutellaris: female. 
13. oe bijugalis: female. 
14. ie es : male. 

15. ce seutellaris: male. 
16. ae abalinealis: female. 
Nets “s st : male. 
18. es deceptalis: male. 
19. “ ae : female. 
20. be umbralis. 

mile se toreuta. 


PLATE IX. 


SPECIES OF THE GENERA BOMOLOCHA, PLATHYPENA, AND HYPENA. 


1.2. Bomolocha madefactalis: female. 


oe “¢ se : male. 
4, ss sordidula: male. 

5, 6. ce ge : female. 
ie ee edictalis: male. 

8. ae ie : female. 
9. ss citata. 

10. Plathypena scabra: male. 

ileal ee eye ‘¢ : female. 

13. Hypena humuli, var albopunctata. 
14. i een ale: 

Heys ee ye temale: 

16. es decorata: male. 

Te of californica: male. 

18. oe ee : female. 


19-21. ‘* modesta: from types in the collection of the United States National 
Museum. 


124 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


PLATE X. 


STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF HELIINI AND HERMINIINI. 


1. Epizeuxis Inbricalis: antenna of male from side near base and near tip. 
2: as ae : antenna of female. 
3. ‘¢ : fore leg of male in all species. 
4. oe venation. This is the usual type in all Horminiini. 
dD. “ denticulalis: antenna of male from below, near base. 
6. os “ : same from side near tip. 
we ‘ ae : a single joint, greatly enlarged. 
8. ns laurentii: antenna of male toward middle, from below. 
9: cs “  —: antenna of female toward tip; /. awmula, female, is very 
similar. 
10. “ rotundalis: antenna of male toward base. 
Hall: . a : same toward tip. 
12. ce ne : antenna of female: that of americalis is practically the 
same. 
13. se scobialis: antenna of male near base. 
14. $s et : Same near tip. 
be i “ : antenna of female. 
16. rs wmula: antenna of male near tip. 
ie “f “* ; Same near base. 
18. us americalis: antenna of male near middle. 
OE a lubricalis: palpus. 
20. Zanclognatha lituralis: fore leg of male. 
21. ss ‘©: specialized joints of male antenna. 
22. ee «:; male antenna near tip. Chytolita mordidalis is practi- 
cally like this at the same point. 
23. ee : antenna of female. 
24. a theralis: fore leg of male. 
Zi us **  : specialized joints of male antenna. 
26. es «c : male antenna near tip. 
27. es «“ : antenna of female. 
28. Be minoralis: fore leg of male. 
29. - as : specialized joints of male antenna: toward tip it is 
much as in theralis. 
PLATE XI. 
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF HERMINIINI. 
1. Zanclognatha levigata: fore leg of male. 
2. ee fs specialized joints of male antenna: exceptional form. 
3. oe oy same: usual form, 
4. - punctiformis: fore leg of male. 
5. : iy : specialized joints of male antenna. 
6. “s pedipilalis: fore leg of male: obscuripennis, ochreipennis, minimalis, 
and marcidilinea are essentially the same. 
fie : of specialized joints of male antenna. 
8. 4 os : male antenna near tip. 
a as cruralis: fore leg of male. 
10. ue ““: male antenna at middle. 
1 ul “: specialized joints, further enlarged. 
12. ‘s marcidilinea: specialized joints of male antenna 
13. oS ochreipennis : He 6S gE tees uy 
14. Bt minimalis : Babe So NS MES a 
#5. : obscuripennis : ee Se aaa Me 


16. oe oe : antenna of female. 





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A REVISION OF THE DELTOID MOTHS—SMITH. 125 
PLATE: XIT. 


STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF HERMINIINI. 


Philometra eumelusalis: fore leg of male. 
os ae : male antenna. 
ee metonalis: fore leg of male. 
e es : male antenna. These figures are drawn to the same scale 


and the differences in size between the two species are 
proportionally correct. 
Philometra metonalis: tip of a single pectination of male antenna, very much 
enlarged. 


Hormisa absorptalis: fore leg of male. The other species of this genus are 
similar, ; 
ae ue : specialized joints of male antenna. 
ee f : asingle joint near base. 
se litophora: specialized joint of male antenna. 
“ orciferalis : ¢ meee acs . 


Chytolita morbidalis: fore leg of male. That of petrealis is similar, but only 
half the size. 


oO uC : specialized joints of male antenna. 

sc petrealis: oe se os 0 
Bleptina caradrinalis: antenna of male. 

= medialis : as Sp res 

re inferior: oe pee ar 


PLATE XIII. 


STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF HERMINIINI. 


Bleptina caradrinalis: fore lez of male. Medialis and inferior are practically the 
same. 
sé Bf : venation of both wings. 
Tetanolita tloridana: fore leg of male. Palligera is essentially like this. 
SS x : antenna of male toward tip: toward base it is much as in 
lixalis. 
oh mynesalis: fore leg of male. 
a sf : specialized portion of male antenna. 
se es : venation of primary at end of subcostal. 
ff palligera: specialized part of male antenna. 
Hypenula cacuminalis: fore leg of male. 
< ee antenna of male toward tip. 
Heterogramina pyramusalis: fore leg of male. 
te BE antenna of male. 
Characteristic antenna of Renia. 
Venation of primaries in Renia. 
Renia salusalis: foreleg of male. 
“* flavipunctalis: foreleg of male: all the species are like one or the other of 
the forms here figured. 
** salusalis: specialized joints of male antenna. The hair tuft omitted in all 
these figures. Discoloralis is very similar, 
“ sobrialis: specialized joints of male antenna. 
“¢  larvalis: sg Sle Meee ies oe 
“¢  elitosalis: x sere eco re ae 
flavipunctalis: ‘“ “ie Cour .ce a 
“¢ pulverosalis: ‘“ Ss peace ‘* Factiosalis is practically like this. 


Palpus of Renia. 


A At, 


126 BULLETIN 48, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


PLATE XIV. 


STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF HERMINIINI AND HYPENINI. 


1. Gaberasa ambigualis: venation of primary of male. 
2. a ns : palpus of male. 

3. uf ae : fore leg of male. 

4. Dercetis: venation of both wings. 

5. ‘¢ : male palpus. 

6 i vitrea: fore leg of male. 

if Se “« ; antenna of male. 

8. ee pygmiea: fore leg of male. 

9 a ae : antenna of male, 


10. Venation of primaries in Palthis. 
11. Palthis asopialis: fore leg of male. 


12. oo af : palpus of male. 

13. ec as : antenna of male. Gaberasa 1s also like this. 

14. Ot y : palpus of female. 

SSN es ee : specialized guarded pits of male palpi, from which the hair 


tufts issue. The structure in angulalis is essentially the 
same but smaller throughout. 
16. Venation of Bomolocha; and this is essentially the same in all Hypenids. 
17. Fore leg of the male Hypenini. 
18. Antenna of male in the Hypenini. 
19. Palpus of Bomolocha, 





U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 48, PL. J 





SPECIES OF THE GENUS EPIZEUXIS. 
(For explanation of plate see page 121.) 





U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 48, PL. Il 





SPECIES OF THE GENUS ZANCLOGNATHA. 


(For explanation of plate see page 121. 


U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 48, PL. III 





SPECIES OF THE GENUS ZANCLOGNATHA. 
(For explanation of plate see page 121.) 





U. S, NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 48, PL. IV 





SPECIES OF HORMISA, PHILOMETRA, CHYTOLITA, AND TETANOLITA. 


(For explanation of plate see page 122.) 





U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 48, PL. V 





SPECIES OF BLEPTINA, HETEROGRAMMA, GABERASA, DERCETIS, AND PALTHIS. 


(For explanation of plate see page 122. 


U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 


SPECIES OF THE GENUS RENIA. 
(For explanation of plate see page 122.) 


BULLETIN 48, PL. 


Vi 











BULLETIN 48, PL. VII 


C—O 


SPECIES OF THE GENUS RENIA. 


(For explanation of plate see page 123.) 








U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 48, PL. VIII 





SPECIES OF HYPENULA, CAPIS, SALIA, LOMANALTES, AND BOMOLOCHA. 


(For explanation of plate see page 123.) 





U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 48, PL. IX 





SPECIES OF BOMOLOCHA, PLATHYPENA, AND HYPENA. 
(For explanation of plate see page 123.) 





U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 48, PL. X 


PE RR 


15 27 








STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF HELIINI AND HERMINIINI. 


(For explanation of plate see page 124.) 





U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM ? BULLETIN 48, PL. XI 





STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF HERMINIINI. 
(For explanation of plate see page 124.) 





U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 48, PL. XIl 


\ MMi) Ge fn 


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\ \A f / ip ZY 
Wi Ggz 

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STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF HERMINIINI. 


(For explanation of plate see page 125.) 





U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM ; BULLETIN 48, PL. XIII 





STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF HERMINIINI. 
(For explanation of plate see page 125.) 





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U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 48, PL. XIV 





STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF HERMINIINI AND HYPENINI. 


(For explanation of plate see page 126.) 


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[Tribal and Family names are in capitals. Generic names begin witi capitals, 
and specific names with lower-case letters. Synonyms are printed in italics. ] 





Page. | 
PN MInNealIStess cs os see ane eet = 93, 95, 100 
AbSORDUdliseeeos=. ==- == -)--- --- 46 
MEIER US = Se eee = Sake eno 93, 102 
acknowledgments .--..--------- 13 
SIM Bese ne es ein ces ss see hess 17, 26 
MUDLSUIMCUS = Osa cen aren emo em a 105 
aibopunctata..---.------------- 114 
LCS OR nS oe Ae as Soars aa cet 67, 73 
MDC WAIS = 22--2-22eo-5 -=-— =-=- 81 
CRC eee nee emer 17, 23 
AO TW MIS er = 2 eee sea -— == 85, 86 
MMMM Se ees = fees ce aceite. 94, 108 
antennal peculiarities -..--.---- 5 
GRUCIMUVUSHS ae seam see aa =m 86 
SOM Mal See em = ea 85, 86, 87 
PENG OL hss Aenea sees 30, 31, 38 | 
MVUGIINOLUIS s+ + oc.) 2 Sco = oS 93, 95, 96 
DOUG ete ese = a 2 an == 2 al a 74 
EDEUEINS (Lae Saaee ei eeer Sosa 96 | 
DUC Serie ee ee ee ee (= as ni 77 
ORI Te Se ee 81 
Raealis.<: 2 ered eas. =-2. = 5>2,°93;,90, OT 
bivibvaldsee= 22 eases shes 46, 48 
pla uiliee = = se eae eee 9, 14, 57 
Bomoloclae ==. 222522. s<hessaee 11, 14, 91 
1 SHS rr ee 20 
BReMPOsMaNsere mess fF 55 cess 66, 68 
GACUMINAIIS S2eeser == s22.-2 <2 = - = 77 
BIVIEUU US == = se er Ue ons ot 93, 102 
CaORNICE =. 92 ces seen a 113, 114, 116 
Ma pise eas 222.2222 ssteepere ss 11, 14, 88 
PUGET BG =2= 25.2. SO ee 58 
CONURCUS 2-22 Stina 5% S22 2 Ses eees 66, 67, 72 
Chytolita:--..22=2-25.22:.2 22222 10, 14, 54 
PGMA ae 225555. 2SsS 222 Saee 94, 95, 107 
CHONYNG .= 2225222522222 50 2220 84 
Cleptomia =. -225-- = 22-2225 =. 21, 26, 09 
GUUOSALIS@E: =o 56 252-252 se5sse< 67, 68, 72 
ChONTASANS: Soa eas 2 Sa alee sess: 58 
Coloboctila.-- e222 sae =e SS 89 


Page. 

Colors and markings ----------- 3 
CONCISUM A = Sent ae ee eee ae 26 
CROUSSUNIS aes ae eee ae = 111 
CPS een ds ooo eeoos eae 30, 32, 40 
CULV Aan =n see = aceon eecicee eee = 88 
HOMNOGSUNS == 25255545205 256em-52 93, 102 
Ceceplalisie=ss=> cee == = 8= = o> 93, 95, 101 
ECON UCM Same anne ae eee == 29, 33 
CIXOCRETIN adecouecceomeeneseoes 113, 116 
DrLroips; rank and structure. - 1 
denticulalis, sees 222s) =a AOD 
Wercetista: ssosee see ose oe 10, 14, 82 
discoloralises<s52255--5--4525=5¢ 66, 68, 69 
duft-apparate ==--+---------=--- 3 
CCUC TANI ss Aaa lo ie a mnie 94, 95, 106 
BUMenaiS eee eae mes sams) =e eS o~ 109 
GIT UOS Gaia phere saecce Se secc 26 
HOG UNS) a ee 4,14, 15 
Wrastrigs 2222 oS sees eae sae e= 94 
ORIGHNOS Sos Bases = Jos2 ab esoseece 111 
BRUT UNG CIV eee ere eal ale 91 
PRIN 22 ee tee a2 sase see 80 
eumelusalis ...-----.- ages he Soe 50, 51, 53 
CVUMOAMNS 2 anne ose 522-2 eee 114 
fActiOsalisees = sss5s422 22.2 os = 67, 68, 73 
HONICIMOS aaa OES See Jae 69 
faunal range of group .-.-------- 12 
EC QUS REE ee Oem Se ame ores 97 
HA ylpUMe tues ys == Aaa 5 ee 67, 68, 74 
TOTO Mise asa 2 asa Sees ee 62, 63 
ONUES Lime e eae eee eee 20, 21 
PTAVSLUAMMUsse os ces So aso eee 67, 68, 70 
functions of antennal structures. 6 
lee structures ...-.-.. 8 

(ra peracdenses 2+ ses tesa sce ss 2 10, 14, 80 
GUOSQUIS a2 38 sans ems iaae t= =o s == dl 
GEN Cn AUS ae een eak a s2 2 == a 69 
geographical distribution..--.-- 12 
OMAR b= ae isaac a ses aa on 114 
ann ieeeese cee. t.2% oe fee 79 


127 


128 INDEX. 
Page. E Page, 

"GY PSalis we secs eer oaeer ee aces Jo EMO STAD A aieee Sees ae ae 94 
Habits of the species.--...=--.-- 13; )|omodestax: s-<- 22. eee 113, 114, 117 
[Tip shan copoaceadese 2s4ese\22¢ 19 DON IROU Ends ee sae ee eee 26 
‘elias Saeco sews mee eee 15) Gmorbrdalliis fe ees eee ee oe 55, 56 
LAINE S. oe eee ee 4713-1099) onynesalisee soe: ae Serer etree 62, 63 
ReWUsalis ete eee ee eee ee 4. | nbulifascian = te op aa eee ee 46 
WT OPTUS mrecrxreeee ae tte a ste ee 54. D5 al OD e8AUSS a2 seme te ee eee 111 
ELH RENIN tees sae AS 13; 119s Obscuripentis sede see ee mole eal 
[RCTUINIUIOL HES (22 ers eee ea ae 26 | obsoleta: 222 3 5s ee eee 30, 36 
Ineterootammaeee ear ae eee 10 14-784 soccidentalise=: == eee 18 
Hormise,: 202 cnt ocee Seesaw ee 9714.45 | ochretpennis: =. 2-20 -e aes 31, 32, 44 
UT ae eee eee ea ena TUS AS | SOliVaCe tien sas een ve ser eee 114 
iy pena eae ee Saeco eee 12 aa S| OPACOlis == =. seme ae eee Gl 
FIGVa TINTING oe ee fis 20 5| tonciterdlises- 22 eens eee 46, 49 
Py PeMUlan eas. so eee eee 1OV145 76 |Pornamentation: =-=2s02. 2422 -eee 3 
RCUCUR LLCS Nee ete eet 108 | Pacific coast-species --..-..-.--- 12 
Wado lose eee eee sant 26" | AROUAChtines ae hoe ee eee 45 
imconspicualis'..-!...-22-.-.-ss< 29,0) 30 | pallialis— pen. eee ee eee 97 
INCUSAIIS ES see es eee ete 94°) palligveraz2:- =< =e eee 62, 64 
ENAUMEMUB a= cece eee e ee ces 81 | palpalis 22-3 See ee eee 111 
METOT We esses eee ee eee eae 58,61 | palpi, sexual modifications of. -- 10 
WVEORNAS 5 o<2 Ja casas wine 105° | APalthis: 2.2 Jie ates re 10, 14, 84 
LUNE UN Gaeta ter OOOO astonalis ease ee ee ae eee 74 
WQCCNWUSHURS a2 oar ache ei 40: | pedipilalis:..2 222022 < eee ee 30, 32, 39 
LACINOS ea ee IG a) penangUlalts inns seme eee 93, 101 
UOTE, See ae oe See Secs 105) petreallis 7 seen. Ge ee eee 55, 56 
leevie Rtn ace sae eee 30) 31 SOs ephw@alise seen eee a ee eee 18 
larvalechariciers=sss-<2---eee—— 13) Phalanopnhan dices. e= ee 78 
eval ise oe eee ee eee GOS RCLEROR MUS ers aera men ene 74 
A SATS 1 Url eee 1651722) |Rehilometrass--=- eee 9, 14, 50 
IGE? SUMMCUNNG) 4-55 sso censso sass Gach OG ee ee eee 27, 28 
[EMNGMILOR coco cceseooocSss soce =e 106+ Plath ypenales2-2. esse eee 12, 14, 110 
LUTUC CLS eee ee ee AG len vn eciUis nee eee 67, 73 
Evingnathae ce 255 abe Bee see BOT Of COLC, ae seater ete re 95, 102 
NitG PH OL seen ae eee 46, 48 | protummosalis...-.--.--.....-- 31, 32, 42 
ttre eu Lins eee eee teeta 29, 31, 32 | Pseudaglossa.....--------------- 15, 16 
UiMg is eee eee eee G3e|(eseudory Olas-sa--o eee 3 
Lomanaltes ......-..--------. 12,14, 109 | pulverosalis - ----..-...---.------- 68, 75 
LON GUUGUGS eee eee a il || joyeboroinuKoMNs) s—ssossceskensaese 30, 31, 37 
lubnicalisssssseeeeceaceaee ese. 16, 17 | (MUU ea oso bas ccescasess aps¢ 49 
UN CICT UID 61.0 eee ete OS ip yjeunes ae eee ee ee Aah oe 83, 84 
madefactalis ...-..2'.-..<2-+. 93) 95, 102 | pyramusalis os 2222-2 25-se see 79 
VOLO) gs area a 89) | (Renllateecssseste sa sos een eeeee 10, 14, 65 
aie OLAS ease ee eee ace 52 = 6, 17,25: | nestrictatihi a. cos 2! oer 67, 71 
Re Spee eee eee ee GOS Qa Oi Sig svat ease eee eee Ee 
MAN CLOMNMC A ea an ee ee elie = 31 32,43) | Lopund alse ae 16, 17, 20 
CO Ci ee oe oleae tae S49 efi eae ear ee ere ee eee 90 
markings and colors...-..------ 3) | (UNIGen@ies so. a= eee 79 
medialis ters tee Tel sts oe: 58,60 |: Saliac i225! 24.20 11, 14, 89 
Morachiyia: sane Peete so es cel 97, 28. salicalisa so: 42 eee eee 89, 91 
VIC Glin) PCN maternal tll OI tealigndiees-) -= =e a eee 90 
MELONS eects see ee ee 5 (DUET eso MS ea Se eset een ore 66, 68 
Microphysa ..-.-+-.---.-+-----.. 23,26 | seabra ..-----<. ---.------------ 111 
MINIMGNS’.\s22-2< Ue eee eee e] Holy 42u| (SCOntty OT OS ayer ora 8 
PADI Geet Seater reat vameraers See 29, 31534: |“scobialis 2 2226-226 ecm sees 16, 17, 21 





—— =” = 


INDEX. 129 

Page. Page. 

BOI NUUDENIG) seis ere iwiciceaclae'slei's'o sis POM MLMNOD MLS wate clone Hetero wetantalcie ae 69 
ROUUClaAnine se eye cra eit EB Wis Biss MGONCUIED ckecaoneessbee aoreeoene 94, 95, 105 
senses in the antenne .....----- GH PTO nt COMES tic tare ot okie oye te os =< 80 
BENNQULCON TUS wreata cela =iajal a erafaiciel eel Dom MU ELDen Use as sa. cee ots savee one. 107 
MSISU ALY GI Unie iam or aiaieie= aoc alos 45 | tuftings of theleos...........-.. 7,8 
MOL ger cee aack co wrarete > 5 G7RGS-nilsy | mambralligies. eee ee ee Od. Ob. Tod! 
ROMUUO Meese e oe aes cameos AOS OSM MUCLUENEn Mie mea cere scenes ae wae ses 106 
ROMU QS eerie sian 3 hk elem on iieln is 111 | venation of the group.--........ 3 
RUURNCULLULS serail ate tesla eielaiatate =.8 aL Si) vliGU 6 Bier aera Skt oS Set 83 
PNOLAMOMUGS 2% sets ise oa sic wnl= < Re yee aenl Olen eZ CLO PELE N clmeestateisieletetael=te/e\e<iere 9, 14, 27 





Oietalicmenceclclonseeesecmcces ool, 00 
(8622 _No, 48———9 
© 





_ BULLETIN 


OF THE 


ED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 


No: 48. 


PRIBUTION TOWARD A MONOGRAPH OF THE INSECTS 
a" OF THE LEPIDOPTEROUS FAMILY NOCTUIDE Once 
aN PUN, NORTH AMERIVAW—A REVISION 

c OF THE DELTOID oe i 


JOHN B. SMITH, Sc. D., 
Professor of Entomology in Rutgers College. 


: WASHINGTON: 
tint ‘OVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1895. 






































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